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Ozone in High Altitude Aircraft

2011-10-17
CURRENT
AIR910C
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone, its effects, generally accepted ozone exposure limits (aviation and non-aviation), and methods of its control in high altitude aircraft. Sources of information are listed and referenced in the text.
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Air Conditioning of Aircraft Cargo

1997-10-01
CURRENT
AIR806B
The report presents air conditioning data for aircraft cargo which is affected by temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and atmospheric pressure. The major emphasis is on conditioning of perishable products and warm-blooded animals. The report also covers topics peculiar to cargo aircraft or which are related to the handling of cargo.
Standard

Ozone in High Altitude Aircraft

2003-01-11
HISTORICAL
AIR910B
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone, its effects, generally accepted ozone exposure limits (aviation and non-aviation), and methods of its control in high altitude aircraft. Sources of information are listed and referenced in the text.
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OZONE PROBLEMS IN HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT

1996-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR910A
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone and its control in high altitude aircraft environmental systems. Sources of this information are listed in the selected bibliography appearing at the end of this report, to which references are made throughout.
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Electrical and Electronic Equipment Cooling in Commercial Transports

1992-09-01
CURRENT
AIR64B
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. In instances where these two locations result in different requirements, these are identified. For purposes of this document, the cooled equipment is referred to generally as E/E equipment, denoting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. This document primarily relates to E/E equipment which is designed to use forced air cooling in order to maintain the equipment within acceptable environmental limits, in order to maintain equipment operating performance (within acceptable tolerances), and to maintain reliability. Cooling may be applied internally or externally to the case of the item of E/E equipment.
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ANIMAL ENVIRONMENT IN CARGO COMPARTMENTS

1985-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1600
The environmental factors of prime importance in the transport of animals in aircraft are air temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration, and of course space (or volume) limitations. Secondary factors are air velocity, noise, lighting, etc. Pressure is not addressed herein as pressure levels and rates of change are totally dictated by human occupancy requirements. Some basic governmental documents, such as References 1, 2 and 3, define overall requirements for animal transportation, but with very limited data on environmental requirements. Reference 4 gives some airplane characteristics measured during animal transportation from the USA to foreign destinations. Temperature and humidity profiles are indicative of airplane characteristics. This report presents information on the temperature, humidity, ventilation, and carbon dioxide limitations and the metabolic heat release rates for animals which will allow the determination of the environment required by the animals.
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Animal Environment in Cargo Compartments

1997-10-01
CURRENT
AIR1600A
The environmental factors of prime importance in the transport of animals in aircraft are air temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration, and of course space (or volume) limitations. Secondary factors are air velocity, noise, lighting, etc. Pressure is not addressed herein as pressure levels and rates of change are totally dictated by human occupancy requirements. Some basic governmental documents, such as References 1, 2 and 3, define overall requirements for animal transportation, but with very limited data on environmental requirements. Reference 4 gives some airplane characteristics measured during animal transportation from the USA to foreign destinations. Temperature and humidity profiles are indicative of airplane characteristics. This report presents information on the temperature, humidity, ventilation, and carbon dioxide limitations and the metabolic heat release rates for animals which will allow the determination of the environment required by the animals.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

1990-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/5
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
Standard

Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2001-08-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/2
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
Standard

Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

1994-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Airborne Chemicals in Aircraft Cabins

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR4766/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. Identified potential sources. Comfort, health and safety issues. Airborne chemical measurement. Regulations and standards. Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
Standard

NBC Protection Considerations for ECS Design

2014-07-01
CURRENT
AIR4362A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
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AIRPLANE CABIN PRESSURIZATION

1959-11-15
HISTORICAL
ARP367A
These recommendations cover the general field of airplane cabin pressurization equipment and are subdivided as follows: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURIZED AIRPLANES CABIN AIR COMPRESSORS CABIN PRESSURE REGULATING EQUIPMENT ENGINE BLEED AIR DUCT SYSTEMS CABIN PRESSURE DUCTING SYSTEM
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Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

1988-08-31
HISTORICAL
ARP4014
This recommended practice describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of this test fluid is not part of this recommended practice, however, if required by applicable test specification, refer to MAP 749A.
Standard

AIR CONDITIONING, HELICOPTER, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR

1970-10-26
HISTORICAL
ARP292B
These recommendations are written to cover the general requirements of helicopter air conditioning and are sub-divided as follows: (1) Air Conditioning System - Dealing with the general design aspects. (2) Air Conditioning Equipment - Design requirements for satisfactory system function and performance. (3) Air Conditioning System Design Requirements -General information for use of those concerned in meeting requirements contained herein.
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