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Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1347
The use of low temperature combustion (LTC) modes has demonstrated abilities to lower diesel engine emissions while maintaining good fuel consumption. LTC is assumed to be a viable solution to assist in meeting stringent upcoming diesel engine emissions targets, particularly nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, LTC is currently limited to low engine loads and is not a feasible solution at higher loads on production engines. A mixed mode combustion strategy must be implemented to take advantage of the benefits offered from LTC at the low loads and speeds while switching to a conventional diesel combustion strategy at higher loads and speeds and thus allowing full range use of the engine under realistic driving conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize engine out emissions during transient engine operating conditions involving LTC combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1063
Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and Real-Time DPF Filtration Efficiency Measurements During PM Filling Process

2007-04-16
2007-01-0320
An experimental study was performed to investigate diesel particulate filter (DPF) performance during filtration with the use of real-time measurement equipment. Three operating conditions of a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. heavy-duty diesel engine were selected to generate distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) in terms of chemical composition, concentration, and size distribution. Four substrates, with a range of geometric and physical parameters, were studied to observe the effect on filtration characteristics. Real-time filtration performance indicators such as pressure drop and filtration efficiency were investigated using real-time PM size distribution and a mass analyzer. Types of filtration efficiency included: mass-based, number-based, and fractional (based on particle diameter). In addition, time integrated measurements were taken with a Rupprecht & Patashnick Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), Teflon and quartz filters.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Exhaust System Thermal Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-1131
A modeling study has been conducted in order to characterize the heat transfer in an automotive diesel exhaust system. The exhaust system model, focusing on 2 exhaust pipes, has been created using a transient 1-D engine flow network simulation program. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimental data gathered before commencement of the modeling study. Predicted pipe exit stream temperatures are generally within one percent of experimental values. Sensitivity analysis of the model was the major focus of this study. Four separate variables were chosen for the sensitivity analysis. These being the external convective heat transfer coefficient, external emissivity, mass flow rate of exhaust gases, and amplitude of incoming pressure fluctuations. These variables were independently studied to determine their contribution to changes in exhaust gas stream temperature and system heat flux. There are two primary benefits obtained from conducting this analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on Particle-Phase Organic Compounds in Engine Exhaust of a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection (D.I.) Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0342
Significant amounts of particle-phase organic compounds are present in the exhaust of diesel vehicles. It is believed that some of these compounds have a greater impact on human health and the environment than other compounds. Therefore, it is of significant importance to speciate particle-phase organic compounds of diesel particulate matter (PM) to clarify the effects of PM on human health and the environment, and to understand the mechanisms of organic compounds formation in PM. A dilution source sampling system was incorporated into the exhaust measurement system of a single-cylinder heavy-duty direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engine. This system was designed specifically to collect fine organic aerosols from diesel exhaust. The detailed system is described in Kweon et al. [27].
Journal Article

Micro-scale Study of DPF Permeability as a Function of PM Loading

2011-04-12
2011-01-0815
An investigation of the permeability evolution of a diesel particulate filter channel wall as a function of soot loading was conducted. This investigation examined the effects of varying particle characteristics and two filtration velocities (4 and 8 cm/s) on the wall permeability throughout a 1 g/L soot loading. This study was possible using the Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system that was modified to perform temperature controlled in-situ flow tests. The DEFA system allows for isolation of the pressure drop due to the filter wall and soot cake layer greatly simplifying the permeability calculation. Permeability evolution fundamentals and the effects of loading conditions were studied by filling 18 filters with the DEFA system. The filters were loaded using one of four operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. These operating conditions were comprehensively characterized giving insight into the effects of varying particle characteristics.
Journal Article

Development of the Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis System (DEFA)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0486
The development of the Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis system (DEFA), which utilizes a rectangular wafer of the same substrate material as used in a full-scale Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), is presented in this paper. Washcoat variations of the wafer substrate (bare, washcoat, and catalyzed washcoat) were available for testing. With this setup, the complications of flow and temperature distribution that arise in the full-scale DPF can be significantly minimized while critical parameters that affect the filtration performance can be fully controlled. Cold flow experiments were performed to test the system's reliability, and determine the permeability of each wafer type. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package was utilized to ensure the flow uniformity inside the filter holder during the cold flow test.
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