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Catalytic NOx Control Technologies for Diesel and GDI Engines

Lean burn engines (diesel and GDI) boast higher fuel economy and cleaner emissions than conventionally tuned engines while producing equivalent power. They employ higher combustion chamber compression ratios, significant air intake swirl and precise lean-metered direct fuel injection. The downfall of lean-burn technology, however, is increased exhaust NOx emissions (due to higher heat and cylinder pressure) and a somewhat narrower RPM power-band (due to slower burn rates of lean mixtures). Removal of NOx from exhausts is a critical need for emission standards and ambient ozone requirements.
Technical Paper

Regulated and NO2 Emissions from a Euro 4 Passenger Car with Catalysed DPFs

2009-04-20
2009-01-1083
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in European city street air have not decreased after year 2000 in spite of stringent Euro 3 and Euro 4 NOx limits for diesel passenger cars. NO2 emissions from modern diesel vehicles are caused by platinum catalysed Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and platinum catalysed Diesel Particulate Filters (cDPF). The NO2 formed on DOC and cDPFs are used for passive soot regeneration but the excess of NO2 out of the filter is not controlled. A Euro 4 diesel passenger car equipped with a DOC and a palladium base metal cDPF was compared with DOC plus a platinum based cDPF using NEDC test cycle with both cold and hot start, FTP-75, and Artemis test cycles. Emissions of NO2 and NOx were measured online in the raw exhaust, and with standard bag sampling method. Relative to cold NEDC the NOx and NO2 levels increased with a warm engine.
Technical Paper

NOx Trap Catalyst Technologies to Attain 99.5% NOx Reduction Efficiency for Lean Burn Gasoline Engine Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1077
For fuel economy improvement by lean-burn gasoline engines, extension of their lean operation range to higher loads is desirable as more fuel is consumed during acceleration. Urgently needed therefore is development of emission control systems having as high NOx conversion efficiency as three-way catalysts (TWC) even with more frequent lean operation. The authors conducted a study using catalysts loaded with potassium (K) as the only NOx trapping agent in an emission control system of a lean-burn gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Properties of Partial-Flow and Coarse Pore Deep Bed Filters Proposed to Reduce Particle Emission of Vehicle Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1087
Four of these Particulate Reduction Systems (PMS) were tested on a passenger car and one of them on a HDV. Expectation of the research team was that they would reach at least a PM-reduction of 30% under all realistic operating conditions. The standard German filter test procedure for PMS was performed but moreover, the response to various operating conditions was tested including worst case situations. Besides the legislated CO, NOx and PM exhaust-gas emissions, also the particle count and NO2 were measured. The best filtration efficiency with one PMS was indeed 63%. However, under critical but realistic conditions filtration of 3 of 4 PMS was measured substantially lower than the expected 30 %, depending on operating conditions and prior history, and could even completely fail. Scatter between repeated cycles was very large and results were not reproducible. Even worse, with all 4 PMS deposited soot, stored in these systems during light load operation was intermittently blown-off.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Operating Range of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Multi Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with Extensive EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-1127
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels and injection timings sufficiently early or late to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix extensively prior to combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection diesel PPC in a multi cylinder heavy duty engine resembling a standard build production engine. Limits in emissions and fuel consumption are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. Experiments are carried out at different engine speeds and a comparison of open and closed loop combustion control are made as well as evaluation of an extended EGR-cooling system designed to reduce the EGR temperature. In this study the PPC operating range proved to be limited.
Journal Article

Efficacy of EGR and Boost in Single-Injection Enabled Low Temperature Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1126
Exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection strategy and boost pressure are among the key enablers to attain low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously on modern diesel engines. In this work, the individual influence of these parameters on the emissions are investigated independently for engine loads up to 8 bar IMEP. A single-shot fuel injection strategy has been deployed to push the diesel cycle into low temperature combustion with EGR. The results indicated that NOx was a stronger respondent to injection pressure levels than to boost when the EGR ratio is relatively low. However, when the EGR level was sufficiently high, the NOx was virtually grounded and the effect of boost or injection pressure becomes irrelevant. Further tests indicated that a higher injection pressure lowered soot emissions across the EGR sweeps while the effect of boost on the soot reduction appeared significant only at higher soot levels.
Technical Paper

NOX Aftertreatment for Passenger Cars and Heavy Duty Truck Applications for EU 6 and EUVI/US2010 Legislation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0904
Due to the high percentage of NOX emissions generated by mobile vehicles, current and future legislation for NOX limits is of especially high importance for the automotive industry. In Europe those include not only the more stringent yearly averaged level for inner city NO2 emissions, but also a proposal of the EU parliament of a NOX limitation value for EU 6 legislation of 80 mg/km for passenger cars. In addition, a proposition of the EU commission for a NOX limitation value for Stage VI for heavy duty trucks of 400 mg/kWh is being discussed. In the US the requirements with US BIN 5 for passenger cars and US2010 for Heavy Duty Trucks are comparable. There is no doubt about the necessity of the usage of exhaust after treatment systems for NOX reduction in order to fulfil these requirements, however largely unclear are the technical details of systems capable to fulfil these requirements.
Journal Article

Evaluation of SCR Catalyst Technology on Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-04-20
2009-01-0910
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as effective for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines, maintaining high NOx conversion even after the extended high temperature exposure encountered in systems with active filter regenerations. As future diesel emission regulations are expected to be further reduced, packaging a large volume of SCR catalysts in diesel exhaust systems, along with DOC and particulate filter catalysts, will be challenging. One method to reduce the total volume of catalysts in diesel exhaust systems is to combine the SCR and DPF catalysts by coating SCR catalyst technology on particulate filters. In this work, engine evaluation of SCR coated filters has been conducted to determine the viability of the technology. Steady-state engine evaluations demonstrated that high NOx conversions can be achieved for SCR coated filters after high temperature oven aging.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

Emissions of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations to Meet 2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0909
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC).
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program: Part 1 – Project Overview and PEMS Evaluation Procedures

2009-04-20
2009-01-0940
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDIUT) program, emission of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) have been regulated using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) during in-use field operation for heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines with 2007 or later model year designations. As directed by the EPA, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB), additive emission measurement accuracy margins (measurement allowances) were experimentally determined for HDIUT to account for the measurement differences between laboratory testing with laboratory grade equipment and in-use testing with PEMS. As part of a three-paper series, this paper summarizes the HDIUT measurement allowance program while focusing on the laboratory evaluations of the Sensors Inc. SEMTECH-DS PEMS.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 2 - Statistical Modeling and Simulation Approach

2009-04-20
2009-01-0939
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance of in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during field operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to conventional laboratory-based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA). The gaseous pollutants examined in the program were carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Real World Emissions in Urban Driving for Euro 1-4 Vehicles Using a PEMS

2009-04-20
2009-01-0941
An on-board emission measurement system (PEMS), the Horiba OBS 1300, was installed in Euro 1-4 SI cars of the same model to investigate the impact of vehicle technology on exhaust emissions, under urban driving conditions with a fully warmed-up catalyst. A typical urban driving loop cycle was used with no traffic loading so that driver behavior without the influence of other traffic could be investigated. The results showed that under real world driving conditions the NOx emissions exceeded the legislated values and only at cruise was the NOx emissions below the legislated value. The higher NOx emissions during real-world driving have implications for higher urban Ozone formation. With the exception of the old EURO1 vehicle, HC and CO emissions were under control for all the vehicles, as these are dominated by cold start issues, which were not included in this investigation.
Journal Article

Effect of Ignition Delay on In-Cylinder Soot Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Operating at Low Temperature Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0946
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies, which can mitigate emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engines, typically have longer ignition delays compared to conventional diesel operation. With extended ignition delays, more time is available for premixing, which reduces PM formation. The effect of varying ignition delay on the spatial and temporal evolution of soot in LTC diesel jets is studied by imaging the natural soot luminosity, while the in-cylinder soot mass and temperature are measured using two-color soot thermometry. Ignition delay in the engine is controlled by adjusting the intake air temperature while keeping the same charge density at TDC. This allowed us to study sooting characteristics at various ignition delays while keeping the same diesel jet penetration for all the cases.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load using Gasoline and Ethanol, a Comparison with Diesel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0944
This paper is the follow up of a previous work and its target is to demonstrate that the best fuel for a Compression Ignition engine has to be with high Octane Number. An advanced injection strategy was designed in order to run Gasoline in a CI engine. At high load it consisted in injecting 54 % of the fuel very early in the pilot and the remaining around TDC; the second injection is used as ignition trigger and an appropriate amount of cool EGR has to be used in order to avoid pre-ignition of the pilot. Substantially lower NOx, soot and specific fuel consumption were achieved at 16.56 bar gross IMEP as compared to Diesel. The pressure rise rate did not constitute any problem thanks to the stratification created by the main injection and a partial overlap between start of the combustion and main injection. Ethanol gave excellent results too; with this fuel the maximum load was limited at 14.80 bar gross IMEP because of hardware issues.
Technical Paper

Effects of in-Cylinder Bulk Flow and Methane Supply Strategies on Charge Stratification, Combustion and Emissions of a Dual-Fuel DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0949
In order to study the effects of air bulk motion and methane injection strategies on the development and pollutant levels of dual-fuel combustion, an intense experimental campaign was performed on a diesel common rail research engine with variable inlet configurations. Activating only the swirl or the tumble inlet valve of the engine, or both of them, it was possible to obtain, inside the cylinder, three different bulk flow structures. The air-methane mixture was obtained injecting the gaseous fuel into the inlet manifold varying its pressure and the injector position, either very close to the inlet valves, in order to obtain a stratified-like mixture, or more upstream, to obtain a homogeneous-like mixture. By combining the two different positions of the injector and the three air bulk flow structures, seven different inlet setup have been tested, at different values of engine speed and load.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion of Diesel Fuel with External Mixture Formation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0924
The current direction of most published diesel HCCI research is mixture preparation using the direct injection – system, referred to as internal mixture formation. The alternative to the internal mixture formation is, predictably, external mixture formation. The key to the external mixture formation with diesel fuel is proper preparation. In this study a fuel vapouriser was used to achieve excellent HCCI combustion in a single cylinder air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. No modifications were made to the combustion system. In the present investigation a vaporized diesel fuel was mixed with air to form a homogeneous mixture and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke. To control the early ignition of diesel vapour-air mixture, cooled EGR technique was adopted. Experiments were conducted with diesel vapour induction without EGR and with 10%, 20% and 30% EGR.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0796
New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.
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