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Technical Paper

Engine Downsizing through Two-Stroke Operation in a Four-Valve GDI Engine

With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Exploring the NOx Reduction Potential of Miller Cycle and EGR on a HD Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

The reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines requires the development of more advanced combustion and control technologies to minimize the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes both the diesel fuel consumption and the aqueous urea solution used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. This drives an increased need for highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. One promising combustion strategy that can curb NOx emissions with a low fuel consumption penalty is to simultaneously reduce the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure. This can be achieved with Miller cycle and by lowering the in-cylinder oxygen concentration via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combination of Miller cycle and EGR can enable a low TCO by minimizing both the diesel fuel and urea consumptions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Soot Oxidation under Controlled Conditions

A quantitative relationship between diesel soot oxidation rate and oxidation temperature and oxygen partial pressure was investigated by burning the diesel exhaust soot particles in a controlled flat flame supplied with methane/air/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The oxidation temperature and the oxygen partial pressure were controlled in the ranges of 1530 to 1820 K and 0.01 to 0.05 atm (1atm = 1.01325 bar) respectively. Soot particle size distribution measurements were achieved with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle samples that were collected on copper grids at different positions along the flame centerline. Oxidation periods were determined by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The experimental results showed that the experimental oxidation rates fall between the values predicted by the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and those by the Lee formula.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of Injection Timing, EGR and Swirl Ratio on a HSDI Multi-Injection Diesel Engine Emission and Performance

Reductions in fuel consumption, noise level, and pollutant emissions such as, Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM), from direct-injection (DI) diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these reductions, many technologies such as high injection pressure, multiple injection, retarded injection timing, EGR, and high swirl ratio have been used in high-efficiency DI diesel engines in order to achieve combustion and emission control. However, each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is a very strong interaction between these methods when they are simultaneously used in the engine. This study presents a computational study of both the individual effect and their interactions of injection timing, EGR and swirl ratio separately and their interaction in a HSDI common rail diesel engine using the KIVA-3V code.