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High Efficiency IC Engines Concepts, 2014

This technical paper collection focuses on technologies such as advanced and partially mixed combustion, cooled EGR boosting, ignition and direct injection technologies, pressure boosting, intelligent combustion, thermal efficiency, fully variable valvetrains, and other new and developing technologies.

Charging Forward on Petroleum Alternatives

The pace of replacement of petroleum-based fuels as the primary fuel supply for transportation may still be a point of debate. However, the need to find a viable replacement fuel or group of fuels is no longer a major point of debate. The panel will outline what has changed on the journey during the past few years and what the future holds. Viewpoints from government, the military, fuel suppliers and academia will be presented.

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.

The Scuderi Split-Cycle and the Miller Cycle: A Perfect Match

In this presentation, we will explain how the traditional Miller Cycle - which has its limitations in the traditional four-stroke, Otto Cycle engine provides new opportunities for greater fuel efficiency gains and engine downsizing when incorporated in a split-cycle combustion process. Results will also be shared from studies showing how these implementations can provide both significant drops in fuel consumption and increases in power when incorporated into some of today's most economic vehicles. Presenter Stephen Scuderi, Scuderi Group LLC

Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.

Smart and Connected Electrification at Ford

Electrification is becoming a means of sustainable transportation to address global climate change and environmental concerns by reducing the dependency on fossil fuels for personal transportation; and to use renewable energy for transportation. Ford has incorporated Electrification as an important part of the company's sustainable strategy to provide sustainable transportation that is affordable environmentally, socially and economically. While offering customers Power of Choice for a wide range of Electrification products, Ford continues to exploit the potentials of Electrification by taking advantage of the advanced information technology to create smarter and greener vehicles customers want and value. This presentation will highlight some of the on-going research and development on smart and connected Electrification. Presenter Ming Lang Kuang, Ford Motor Co.

Certifiable MultiCore Systems used in Safety Critical System

All Semi Vendors do have multi core CPUs in their portfolio and adding new devices every day. This is the only possibility to grow performance and fulfill Moore's law. Multi core offers a wide variety of possibilities to reduce hardware complexity, reduce power consumption, shrink board space, expand functionality and performance. On the other hand the software complexity goes up and this directly affects the ability to achieve a certified system. The main trend as of today and in the future is the rising number of cores in a single chip and the increasing functionality of the software. As this trend does not stop at safety critical systems, the System/Solution Architects have to question themselves how to guarantee data integrity, robustness, robust portioning, avoid multi point of failures and race conditions. This presentation will highlight ideas, do's and don'ts for those who will design a safety critical multi Core system today or in the near future.
Technical Paper


Progress made in the development of electrical equipment to serve adequately the needs of motorcoach service is reviewed. Electrical loads on motorcoaches are comparatively high, including the usual head, tail and dash lamps, body-marking and destination lamps and buzzer systems. As more and more electrical energy is used, the source of supply and its control become relatively more important. Not only does the electric generating system have to meet the demands of battery charging, but it should be able to carry the connected load with no battery in the circuit. This means that not only is sufficient energy necessary, but the voltage must be regulated in such a manner that the battery can be charged without endangering the life of the lamps because of excessive voltage, and no flicker in the light from the lamps must be perceptible. All these results must be attained under conditions of variable load, variable speed and the changeable temperatures encountered in service.
Technical Paper


The author starts with the development of the pneumatic tire since its invention by Dunlop in 1888, and proceeds to show why several different types of tire construction are now in use. The merits of the three types of tires, namely, the clincher, straight-side and quick detachable, are discussed as regards energy consumption, traction, total mileage, cost-per-tire-mile, cushioning effect, reliability, ease of applying and service. The conclusions brought out show principally the advantages of the straight-side tire. Statistics are offered to show the trend of the rim situation, and it is pointed out that it is just a question of time when the quick detachable clincher will cease to survive. It had a legitimate place during the development stage, but with the developed straight-side tires giving entire satisfaction, the author holds that there is no excuse for continuing the quick detachable clincher type.
Technical Paper


Substitutes for the conventional type of differential are considered under four classifications; namely, the free-wheel type, the crank and eccentric types, the spiral gear type, and the solid axle. Examples of each of these classifications are described and the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more practical ones discussed. Considerable space is devoted to a discussion of the elimination of any form of differential whatever. Although such construction has advantages of eliminating the spinning of the wheels and assuring positive travel under all conditions, the author believes the disadvantages too great to be overcome. The paper mentions some interesting experiments conducted by street railway engineers in connection with using differentials for street cars, to eliminate the corrugation of rails and wheels, as well as to economize in power consumption.
Technical Paper


This paper deals only with water-cooled engines, the cooling system being considered as made up of four main units-the water jacket, the circulating system, the radiator and the fan. Water-jacket problems are first considered, followed by a comparison of pump and gravity (thermosyphon) systems of circulation. The next section is devoted to radiator requirements. The balance of the paper relates to the fan. Five curves show graphically the correlations of the various factors of cooling, power consumed, air velocity and volume, engine speed, fan speed, air and water temperatures and the element of time, the results applying to different types and sizes of fans. These curves are of service in the selection of fans for radiator cooling purposes. The classification of fans, fan power consumption and speed, fan belts and pulleys, disadvantages of high fan speed, types of fan bearings, and applications of fans are the subjects next taken up.
Technical Paper

Operation of Passenger Tires at High Speeds

THE standard tire will operate continuously at 94 mph without failing, but last only about 50 miles at 100 mph. This paper discusses means of counteracting the high power consumption and inertial effects that cause such deterioration of tire materials at high speeds. The authors describe one special tire with tread ground away in such a manner as to lower power consumption and allow operation at 120 mph with very little distortion. Whatever means are used to allow the higher speed operation sure to be required of future tires, the authors, say, major improvements in physical properties will account for only a few mph speed improvement. Eventual requirements, they feel, will be met with compromises in tread wear and perhaps cost.
Technical Paper

Tires For High-Performance Cars

THIS paper reviews earlier work concerned with steering characteristics of tires and wave formation in tires revolving at high speeds. The authors describe various machines used in obtaining fresh, experimental evidence to support earlier theories. A new approach is made to the problem of power consumption of tires. Equations relating wavelength to high-speed power consumption of tires are supported by new experimental evidence. In order to examine changes in cornering force and self-aligning torque with speed, the authors use the suggestion that a forward movement of the center of pressure in the tire contact patch depends upon an increase in power consumption of the tire. Variations in tire characteristics with extreme braking and traction forces are examined in parallel with suggested changes in the shape of the tire contact patch. Factors affecting the handling of a sports car at the point of tire breakaway are examined.
Technical Paper

Some Phenomena of Engine Wear as Revealed by Radioactive Tracer Technique

BECAUSE of its effect on oil consumption and power, piston-ring and cylinder-wall wear has been made the subject of special research tests conducted by the four authors of this paper. They used the Oak Ridge facilities now available to industry, and secured radioactivated piston rings for installation in the test equipment. As the rings wear, the wear debris is picked up by the lubricating oil. The amount of iron from the activated ring that is present in the oil at any given time may readily be determined with a Geiger counter. The results discussed are classified under three broad divisions: the effect of operating conditions, lubrication, and fuel on engine wear.
Technical Paper

WIDE-BASE Tire and Rim Construction

WIDE-BASE rims impose different conditions of strains in tires and emphasize certain inherent performance differences, some of which are advantages and others disadvantages. After a year of exhaustive testing by the combined car and tire industries, the wide-base rim proposal seems to have settled on the use of existing tire sizes on rims 1 to 1½ in. wider than at present, giving a rim ratio of 75 to 82% of tire width as compared with a ratio of 62 to 68% of the inflated width on existing tires. The principal benefits of the proposed rim resizing combination, using present tire load-carrying capacity and 2 psi lower inflation pressure are: (1) considerably more stability in the car; and (2) a 20 to 22% increase in tire tread life.
Technical Paper

Optimum Rate Of Voltage Rise for Minimum Energy Loss In Ignition Systems

THE development of engines with higher compression ratios and those having valves in the head has meant that the minimum performance requirements of present-day distributor and coil type ignition systems are being approached. The authors of this paper have closely examined the ignition system as a whole to determine if these new demands can be met without appreciably increasing the primary current. The authors suggest that, if the reserve energy of ignition coils could be used more effectively, we could reduce its value and use the excess energy to charge the secondary circuit to a higher voltage without affecting total reliability.