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Technical Paper

Diesel NO/NO2/NOX Emissions - New Experiences and Challenges

2007-04-16
2007-01-0321
During the VERT *) testing of different DPF systems it was remarked, that the oxidation catalyst converts sometimes a big part of NO to NO2, producing on the one hand a more toxic composition of the exhaust gases and causing on the other hand measuring artefacts, which tend to underestimate of NO2 and NOx by the cold NOx - measurement. The present work summarizes the experiences in this matter elaborated at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during several VERT activities and didactic projects on engine and chassis dynamometers in the years 2000-2006.
Technical Paper

VERTdePN Quality Test Procedures of DPF+SCR Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-1579
The combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR) are the most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT) to radically reduce the critical Diesel emission components particles (PM&NP) and nitric oxides (NOx). SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is regarded as the most efficient deNOx-system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles. Quality standards for those quite complex systems and especially for retrofit systems are needed to enable decisions of several authorities and to estimate the potentials of improvements of the air quality in highly populated agglomerations. The present paper informs about the VERTdePN *) quality test procedures, which were developed in an international network project with the same name 2007-2011 (VERT … Verification of Emission Reduction Technologies; dePN … decontamination, disposal of PM / NP and of NOx).
Technical Paper

Investigations of SDPF -Diesel Particle Filter with SCR Coating for HD-Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1023
Diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, which include the selective catalytic reduction (SCR)*) for reduction of NOx are necessary to fulfil the latest legal requirements and are extensively used in the heavy duty (HD) sector. The present paper informs about some results obtained with SCR and with SDPF (a DPF with SCR-coating) on a medium duty research engine Iveco F1C. Beside the limited gaseous emission components NH3, NO2 and N2O were measured. The analysis of nanoparticle emissions was performed with SMPS and CPC. The integration of functions of filtration and NOx-reduction in one element of exhaust aftertreatment system offers several advantages and is widely investigated and considered as a market solution.
Technical Paper

Experiences from Nanoparticle Research on Four Gasoline Cars

2015-04-14
2015-01-1079
The invisible nanoparticles (NP)*) from combustion processes penetrate easily into the human body through the respiratory and olfactory pathways and carry numerous harmful health effects potentials. NP count concentrations are limited in EU for Diesel passenger cars since 2013 and for gasoline cars with direct injection (GDI) since 2014. The limit for GDI was temporary extended to 6 × 1012 #/km, (regulation No. 459/2012/EU). Nuclei of metals as well as organics are suspected to significantly contribute especially to the ultrafine particle size fractions, and thus to the particle number concentration. In the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates) metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars are investigated for different engine technologies. In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four gasoline cars - an older one with MPI and three newer with DI - are represented.
Technical Paper

NO2-Formation in Diesel Particle Filter Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0526
NO₂ is much more toxic than NO. The average proportion of NO₂ in exhaust gases of vehicles increases significantly due to the use of oxidation catalysts and catalytic coatings in the exhaust gas systems during the last decades combined with generalization of using low sulfur fuels. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and Pt-containing DPF coatings are widely used to support the regeneration of particle filters, being a source of strongly increased production of NO₂. The present work shows some examples and summarizes the experiences in this matter performed at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during some research activities on engine dynamometers in the years 2010-2012.
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