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Technical Paper

A State Space Thermal Model for HEV/EV Battery Modeling

Battery thermal management for high power applications such as electrical/hybrid vehicles is crucial. Modeling is an indispensable tool to help engineers design better battery cooling systems. While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used quite successfully for battery thermal management, CFD models can be too large and too slow for repeated transient thermal analysis especially for a battery module or pack. An accurate but much smaller battery thermal model using a state space representation is proposed. The parameters in the state space model are extracted from CFD results. The state space model is then shown to provide identical results as those from CFD under transient power inputs. While a CFD model may take hours to run depending on the size of the problem, the corresponding state space model runs in seconds.
Journal Article

A Linear Parameter Varying Combined with Divide-and-Conquer Approach to Thermal System Modeling of Battery Modules

A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
Technical Paper

Simulating Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Using VHDL-AMS

A commonly used physics based electrochemisty model for a lithium-ion battery cell was first proposed by professor Newman in 1993. The model consists of a tightly coupled set of partial differential equations. Due to the tight coupling between the equations and the 2d implementation due to the particle modeling, and thus called pseudo-2d in literature, numerically obtaining a solution turns out to be challenging even for a lot of commercial softwares. In this paper, the VHDL-AMS language is used to solve the set of equations. VHDL-AMS allows the user to focus on the physical modeling rather than numerically solving the governing equations. In using VHDL-AMS, the user only needs to specify the governing equations after spatial discretization. A simulation environment, which supports VHDL-AMS, can then be used to solve the governing equations and also provides both pre- and post- processing tools.
Technical Paper

A Complete Li-Ion Battery Simulation Model

Due to growing interest in hybrid and electric vehicles, li-ion battery modeling is receiving a lot of attention from designers and researchers. This paper presents a complete model for a li-ion battery pack. It starts from the Newman electrochemistry model to create the battery performance curves. Such information is then used for cell level battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameter identification. 28 cell ECMs are connected to create the module ECM. Four module ECMs are connected through a busbar model to create the pack ECM. The busbar model is a reduced order model (ROM) extracted from electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) results, taking into account the parasitic effects. Battery thermal performance is simulated first by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Then, a thermal linear and time-invariant (LTI) ROM is created out of CFD solution. The thermal LTI ROM is then two-way coupled with the battery pack ECM to form a complete battery pack model.
Journal Article

Application of POD plus LTI ROM to Battery Thermal Modeling: SISO Case

The thermal behavior of a fluid-cooled battery can be modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Depending on the size and complexity of the battery module and the available computing hardware, the simulation can take days or weeks to run. This work introduces a reduced-order model that combines proper orthogonal decomposition, capturing the variation of the temperature field in the spatial domain, and linear time-invariant system techniques exploiting the linear relationship between the resulting proper orthogonal decomposition coefficients and the uniform heat source considered here as the input to the system. After completing an initial CFD run to establish the reduction, the reduced-order model runs much faster than the CFD model. This work will focus on thermal modeling of a single prismatic battery cell with one adjacent cooling channel. The extension to the multiple input multiple output case such as a battery module will be discussed in another paper.