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Technical Paper

Research on an AKF Estimator of the Gravity Centre and States of Commercial Vehicles

2013-11-27
2013-01-2818
The commercial vehicle is widely used in the overland transport. A prediction is given on the 9th annual China automotive industry forum that the number of the global commercial vehicles will reach eight million by the year of 2016. However, since the distance between its gravity centre and the ground is larger than that of the passenger vehicle, considering its comparatively short wheelbase, the rollover accident, which is fatal to the drivers and always makes enormous loss of merchandises, easily occurs in the case of commercial vehicles. As the number of the commercial vehicle is increasing fast, the accidents will occur more frequently, the losses will be increasingly enormous. To solve the problem, many researches about rollover early warning systems have been done. In most cases, it is assumed that the references of the vehicle are given.
Journal Article

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on EKF and SMC

2015-09-29
2015-01-2846
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper

An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Independent Drive EV Based on Road Identification

2015-04-14
2015-01-1106
Four-wheel independent drive EV is driven by four brushless DC motors which are embedded in the wheel hubs. It enables each wheel's driving torque to be controlled independently. Due to the motors' torque and rotational speed easily measured, as well as the features of fast response and precise control, the EV enjoys obvious advantages over traditional vehicles in acceleration slip regulation. In this paper a novel acceleration slip regulation strategy for four-wheel independent drive EV is studied. The strategy includes a road identification module for the peak value of road adhesion coefficient and a slip regulation logic based on PID algorithm. Through comparing the current wheel slip ratio and the utilized adhesion coefficient with the typical roads' value, the identification module adopts the fuzzy control algorithm to recognize the similarity between the current road and the typical roads. Utilizing the similarity we can calculate the optimal slip ratio of the current road.
Technical Paper

UniTire Model for Tire Cornering Properties under Varying Traveling Velocities

2016-09-27
2016-01-8037
The tire mechanics characteristics are essential for analysis and control of vehicle dynamics. Basically, the effects of sideslip, longitudinal slip, camber angle and vertical load are able to be represented accurately by current existing tire models. However, the research of velocity effects for tire forces and moments are still insufficient. Some experiments have demonstrated that the tire properties actually vary with the traveling velocity especially when the force and moment are nearly saturated. This paper develops an enhanced brush tire model and the UniTire semi-physical model for tire forces and moments under different traveling velocities for raising need of advanced tire model. The primary effects of velocity on tire performances are the rubber friction distribution characteristics at the tire-road interface.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Steering Stability of Nonlinear Four Wheel Steering Based on Sliding Mode Control

2018-08-07
2018-01-1593
Steering movement is the most basic movement of the vehicle, in the car driving process, the driver through the steering wheel has always been to control the direction of the car, in order to achieve their own driving intention. Four Wheel Steering (4WS) is an advanced vehicle control technique which can markedly improve vehicle steering characteristics. Compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicles, 4WS vehicles can steer the front wheels and the rear wheels individually for cornering, according to the vehicle motion states such as the information of vehicle speed, yaw velocity and lateral acceleration. Therefore, 4WS can enhance the handling stability and improve the active safety for vehicles.
Technical Paper

LiDAR Sensor Modeling for ADAS Applications under a Virtual Driving Environment

2016-09-14
2016-01-1907
LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) .However, the development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
Technical Paper

Research on Electric Vehicle Braking Force Distribution for Maximizing Energy Regeneration

2016-04-05
2016-01-1676
The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
Technical Paper

Research On Simulation And Control Of Differential Braking Stability Of Tractor Semi-trailer

2015-09-29
2015-01-2842
Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of with high center of gravity position, large weight and volume, wheelbase is too narrow relative to the body height and so on, so that they always prone to rollover. In response to the above heavy security problems of heavy vehicle in running process, this paper mainly analyzes roll stability and yaw stability mechanism of heavy vehicles and studies the influence of vehicle parameters on stability by establishing the vehicle dynamics model. At the same time, this paper focuses on heavy vehicles stability control methods based on simulation and differential braking technology. At last, verify the effect of heavy vehicle stability control by computer simulation. The results shows that self-developed stability control algorithm can control vehicle stability effectively, so that the heavy vehicles instability can be avoided, the vehicle driving safety and braking stability are improved.
Technical Paper

Development and Test of Braking Intention Recognition Strategies for Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2841
This paper establishes a brake pedal model for braking intention identification, using the structural features of electronic braking system and selecting the proper parameters. A three-dimensional model is built that the input parameters are pedal displacement and pedal displacement change rate, and the output parameter is braking intensity. The relationship between the driver braking operation and braking intention are designed. A hardware-in-the-loop test bench experiment has been taken under several skilled drivers to practice the established the brake pedal model with the operation data during the braking. Thus, it results a model indicating the braking intention by braking operation that means effectively improve the braking comfort and applies to the research of electronic braking system of commercial vehicle.
Journal Article

Application of Stochastic Model Predictive Control to Modeling Driver Steering Skills

2016-04-05
2016-01-0462
With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
Technical Paper

Cabin Thermal Comfort Simulation of Truck Based on CFD

2015-04-14
2015-01-0344
It is known that the automobile cabin thermal comfort, could keep the driver and passengers feel better which has a great effect on traffic safety. In this paper, to the FAW truck cab, we did some researches about automobile cabin thermal comfort. Our plan is to calculate the air flow distribution and the temperature in steady and transient state when there is warm or cool air flow. The heating and cooling experiment methods standard of cabin are based on the national standard and the automobile industry standard of China. Then the numerical simulation process becomes very important. So we used the commercial CFD code- STAR-CCM+ for study in this paper. Firstly, Geometry Clean up. Secondly, Wrap and Remesh, we chose the internal surface at the wrap surface of cabin and air conditioning pipes, then we remesh the surface. Thirdly, generate the volume mesh which is polyhedral mesh, and the number of the volume mesh is 9.4 millions.
Journal Article

Allocation-Based Fault Tolerant Control for Electric Vehicles with X-by-Wire

2014-04-01
2014-01-0866
This paper proposed a novel fault-tolerant control method based on control allocation via dynamic constrained optimization for electric vehicles with XBW systems. The total vehicle control command is first derived based on interpretation on driver's intention as a set of desired vehicle body forces, which is further dynamically distributed to the control command of each actuator among vehicle four corners. A dynamic constrained optimization method is proposed with the cost function set to be a linear combination of multiple control objectives, such that the control allocation problem is transformed into a linear programming formulation. An analytical yet explicit solution is then derived, which not only provides a systematic approach in handling the actuation faults, but also is efficient and real-time feasible for in-vehicle implementation. The simulation results show that the proposed method is valid and effective in maintaining vehicle operation as expected even with faults.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Stability Control Algorithm of Heavy Duty Based on EBS

2014-09-30
2014-01-2382
At present, the active safety and stability of heavy vehicles have becoming big concern among the road transportation industry. The purpose of this paper is to specify the research stability and safety of heavy vehicles those set up the accurate and reliable dynamic vehicle reference model and search the method to improve the stability and safety of tractor and semitrailer. A Multi-objective control algorithm was studied to differential braking based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control method. Simulation results show that the multi-objective control algorithm can effectively improve the vehicle driving stability and safety.
Journal Article

Allocation-Based Control with Actuator Dynamics for Four-Wheel Independently Actuated Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0653
This paper proposes a novel allocation-based control method for four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicles. In the proposed method, both actuator dynamics and input/output constraints are fully taken into consideration in the control design. First, the actuators are modeled as first-order dynamic systems with delay. Then, the control allocation is formulated as an optimization problem, with the primary objective of minimizing errors between the actual and desired control outputs. Other objectives include minimizing the power consumption and the slew rate of the actuator outputs. As a result, this leads to frequency-dependent allocation that reflects the bandwidth of each actuator. To solve the optimization problem, an efficient numerical algorithm is employed. Finally the proposed control allocation method is implemented to control a four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2742
Aiming at estimating the vehicle mass and the position of center of gravity, an on-line two-stage estimator, based on the recursive least square method, is proposed for buses in this paper. Accurate information of the center of gravity position is crucial to vehicle control, especially for buses whose center of gravity position can be varied substantially because of the payload onboard. Considering that the buses start and stop frequently, the first stage of the estimator determines the bus total mass during acceleration, and the second stage utilizes the recursive least-square methods to estimate the position of the center of gravity during braking. The proposed estimator can be validated by the co-simulation with MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim software, simulation results exhibit good convergence and stability, so the center of gravity position can be estimated through the proposed method in a certain accuracy range.
Technical Paper

Research on Tire Lateral Force Prediction under High-Load Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1524
The tire lateral force is essential to the vehicle handling and stability under cornering. However, it is difficult for engineers to get the tire lateral force under high loading condition due to the limitation of loading ability for most tire test machine in the world. The widely used semi-empirical tire lateral force models are obtained by curve-fitting experiments data and thus unable to predict the load dependent lateral force. The objective of this paper is to predict the tire lateral force under high-load condition based on the low-load tire data. The nonlinear characteristics of the tire cornering stiffness with the load are greatly affected by the tire carcass compliance. In this paper, a theoretical tire lateral model was built by considering carcass complex deformation. Combined with the relationship between the half-length of the tire contact patch and the load, the non-linear characteristics of the tire cornering stiffness with load were obtained.
Technical Paper

A Fault-Tolerant Control Method for 4WIS/4WID Electric Vehicles Based on Reconfigurable Control Allocation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0560
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) method for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WIS/4WID) electric vehicles based on a reconfigurable control allocation to increase the flexibility for vehicle control and improve the safety of vehicle after the steering actuator fails. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle steering condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) an upper controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion and trajectory; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels. The FTC approach based on the reconfigurable control allocation reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy steering actuators and driving motors once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Comparative Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle with Different Rotor Structures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0456
As one of the key technologies for EVs and HEVs, the design of their motors has been researched extensively, and some novel rotors of permanent magnet motor were proposed in order to improve torque capability, including average torque and torque ripple. Rotor structure selection of drive motor for various electric vehicles has been one of the key issues in matching of electric vehicle power system. Three motors are analyzed for providing visible insights to the contribution of different rotor structures to the torque characteristics, efficiency and extended speed range. First, an iterative comparative analysis of torque-speed characteristics with different flux linkage, d-axis inductance and rotor saliency ratio is performed for demonstrating the design principle. Then, the three motors are optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA) for further improving the torque characteristics.
Technical Paper

Study on Automated Mechanical Transmission Parameters Optimization for Hybrid Electric Bus

2014-09-30
2014-01-2371
For city buses, especially hybrid electric buses, the requirements for the fuel economy and low noises are stricter, comparing with the momentum quality. Since hybrid electric buses sometimes run without the engine, the noises that the transmission makes become the major type. To get better fuel economy and lower noises, this paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) in a hybrid electric city bus, and the studies are done as follows. Firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratios are optimized by the co-simulation and optimization in CRUISE and MATLAB, with the limitation of the quality of driving momentum. Secondly, for the purpose of lightweight and lower transmission noise, multi-objective optimization based on reliability is applied in transmission geometric optimization design, the objective function are the smallest volume and the biggest transmission gear contact ratio of the transmission.
Technical Paper

A Slip-Rate-Based Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for the Electronic Braking System of Combination Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2385
The paper focus on enhancing the braking safety and improving the braking performance of the tractor/trailer vehicle. A slip-rate-based braking force distribution algorithm is proposed for the electronic braking system of tractor/trailer combination vehicle. The algorithm controls the slip-rates of the tractor's rear wheels and the semi-trailer's wheels changing with the slip-rate of tractor's front wheels, making tractor's front wheels lock up ahead of the tractor's rear wheels and the semi-trailer's wheels. The algorithm protects the combination vehicle from jackknifing and swing, guaranteeing that the combination vehicle has better driving stability and steering capability. The algorithm can be tested by co-simulation with MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim software both on high adhesion and low adhesion roads.
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