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Technical Paper

Piston Clearance Optimization using Thermo-elasto Hydrodynamic Simulation to Reduce Piston Slap Excitation and Friction Loss

The reduction of acoustic excitation due to piston slap as well as friction loss power and seizure are main issues when simulating the oil film lubricated piston - cylinder contacts of internal combustion engines. For a correct representation of the contact conditions between a piston skirt and a cylinder liner surface both the dynamics of the contacting flexible bodies, the shape of the contacting surfaces, the amount of available oil and the properties of the lubricant itself play important roles. Besides an appropriate representation of the hydrodynamic load carrying capacity using an averaged Reynolds equation with laminar flow conditions, the simulation has to use an appropriate asperity model to consider the mixed lubrication condition. The lubricant properties are in particular influenced by its thermal conditions.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Real Time Capable Pollutant Formation and Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling-HSDI Diesel Engine Simulation

Modern Diesel engines require an integrated development of combustion strategies, air management and exhaust aftertreatment. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach with the aim to support engine development activities in the virtual environment. A real-time capable engine, vehicle and control model is extended by three key features. First, a pollutant production model is embedded in a two-zone cylinder model. Second, a framework for catalytic pollutant conversion is built focusing on modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Third, an extended species transport model is introduced considering the transport of pollutants through the air path. The entire plant model is validated on the example of a passenger car Diesel engine. The predicted engine behavior is compared with steady-state measurements. The NO formation model is investigated for a series of steady-state and transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

Simulation Methodology for Consideration of Injection System on Engine Noise Contribution

The target of the investigation is the particular influence of a fuel injection system and its components as a noise source in automotive engines. The applied methodology is demonstrated on an automotive Inline 4-cylinder Diesel engine using a common rail system. This methodology is targeted as an extension of a typical standard acoustic simulation approach for combustion engines. Such approaches basically use multi-body dynamic simulation with interacting FEM based flexible structures, where the main excitation crank train, timing drive, valve train system and piston secondary motion are considered. Within the extended approach the noise excitation of the hydraulic and mechanical parts of the entire fuel system is calculated and subsequently considered within the multi-body dynamic simulation for acoustic evaluation of structural vibrations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Two-Stroke SI Combustion with Simultaneous Cycle-Based Fuel Consumption Measurements

Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
Journal Article

NVH of Electric Vehicles with Range Extender

Intensive R&D is currently performed worldwide on hybrid and electric vehicles. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of currently available batteries. If such a vehicle shall increase its driving range some range extending backup system should be available. Such a Range Extender is a small system of combustion engine and electric generator which produces the required electricity for charging the batteries in time. Since the acoustic response of an electric motor driving the vehicle and of a combustion engine as part of a Range Extender is very different by nature an extensive acoustic tuning of the Range Extender is necessary to meet the requirements of exterior vehicle noise and passenger comfort. This paper describes the NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) development work of a range extender within the AVL approach of an electrically driven passenger car with range extender.
Technical Paper

Global Dynamic Models for XiL-based Calibration

The modern power train calibration process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust aftertreatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. The introduction of predictive simulation tools that represent the complete power train can likely contribute to improving the efficiency of the calibration process using an integral model based workflow. Engine models, which are purely based on complex physical principles, are usually not capable of real-time applications, especially if the simulation is focused on transient emission optimization. Methods, structures and the realization of a global dynamic real-time model are presented in this paper, combining physical knowledge and experimental models and also static and dynamic sub-structures. Such a model, with physical a priori information embedded in the model structure, provides excellent generalization capability.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations on Fuel Consumption and Knock in Steady-State and Drivecycle Operation

In spark-ignition engines, fluctuations of the in-cylinder pressure trace and the apparent rate of heat release are usually observed from one cycle to another. These Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) are affected by the early flame development and the subsequent flame front propagation. The CCV are responsible for engine performance (e.g. fuel consumption) and the knock behavior. The occurrence of the phenomena is unpredictable and the stochastic nature offers challenges in the optimization of engine control strategies. In the present work, CCV are analyzed in terms of their impact on the engine knock behavior and the related efficiency. Target is to estimate the possible fuel consumption savings in steady-state operation and in the drivecycle, when CCV are reduced. Since CCV are immanent on real engines, such a study can only be done by means of simulation.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Novel Shift Control without Clutch Slip in Hybrid Transmissions

With the introduction of new regulations on emissions, fuel efficiency, driving cycles, etc. challenges for the powertrains are significantly increasing. In order to fulfil these regulations, hybrid-electric powertrains are an unquestioned option for short and long-term solutions. Hybridization however, is not only fulfilling these challenging efficiency or emission targets, but also allows numerous new possibilities on control strategies of different powertrain elements as well as new approaches of designing them. A good example is transmissions where, hybridization allows a new transmission type called Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), which enables to use novel control strategies bringing improved performance, driveability, durability and NVH behavior. This paper focuses on the novel shift strategy where friction clutches do not have to slip.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged GDI Engine: Boosted Synergies for High Fuel Economy Plus Ultra-low Emission

Recent turbocharged Gasoline engines based on MPFI offer excellent power output and high nominal torque, however, also some disadvantages. The most significant restrictions of TC-engines - like poor fuel economy, limited emission capability and delayed transient response (turbo lag) - can be improved dramatically by a refined GDI application. The synergy effects of GDI, which are also partly used at naturally aspirated engines, are even more significant with turbocharging. The low emission capability of GDI enables turbocharged SULEV concepts within moderate cost of the emission / aftertreatment system. The outstanding low-end-torque, the high specific power and torque output of refined GDI-Turbo concepts enable high fuel efficiency combined with excellent fun to drive. Thus such GDI-Turbo concepts will become the most attractive technology to fulfill highest fuel economy-, emission- and performance requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection and Mixing Controlled Combustion for Real-Time Application In Steady-State and Transient Operation

The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling for Closed Loop Combustion Control - A Thermodynamic Consistent and Real-Time Capable Approach

Direct injection Diesel engines are a propulsion technology that is continuously developed to meet emission standards. Great optimization potential lies in the combustion process itself. The application of closed loop combustion control allows reacting online to environmental conditions and stabilizing the combustion regarding performance and emissions. Dedicated real-time plant models help to develop and calibrate control algorithms in office and hardware in the loop environments. The present work describes a real-time capable, crank-angle resolved engine, cylinder and combustion model. The cylinder applies an 0D, two-zone approach and a phenomenological combustion model describes ignition delay, premixed and diffusive combustion. The latter is enhanced by a quasi-dimensional description of the injection spray. The model is validated with dedicated measurements. The plant model is applied in two use-cases for closed loop combustion control.