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Technical Paper

Pass-By Noise Prediction for Trucks Based on Powertrain Test-Cell Measurements

2001-04-30
2001-01-1564
The paper outlines and discusses the possibilities of a new instrumentation tool for the analysis of engine and gearbox noise radiation and the prediction of pass-by noise from powertrain test cell measurements. Based on a 32 channel data acquisition board, the system is intended to be quick and easy to apply in order to support engineers during their daily work in the test cell. The pass-by prediction is a purely experimental approach with test cell recordings being weighted by measured transfer functions (from the powertrain compartment to the pass-by point).
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-2015
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

Dimethyl Ether as Fuel for CI Engines - A New Technology and its Environmental Potential

1998-02-23
981158
Dimethyl Ether has been proposed as alternative fuel for combustion engines. The paper gives a brief overview of resources, production, distribution and use of different automotive fuels and compares Dimethyl Ether with other oxygenated synthetic fuels recently proposed. For use in combustion engines Dimethyl Ether requires the introduction of new technologies, mainly in the field of fuel injection systems for direct injection. Such a fuel injection system is described in detail and measured characteristics are shown. For assessment of Dimethyl Ether from the environmental point of view, efficiencies and emissions during production and use of different fuels are summarized and discussed. For evaluation of environmental impacts a method is introduced which compares technical processes with natural cycles of substances and thus determines their “sustainability”.
Technical Paper

ULEV Potential of a DI/TCI Diesel Passenger Car Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether

1995-12-01
952754
The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

Highly Integrated Fuel Cell Analysis Infrastructure for Advanced Research Topics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1180
The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
Technical Paper

Reducing Emissions and Improving Fuel Economy by Optimized Combustion of Alternative Fuels

2011-10-06
2011-28-0050
Alternative fuels, especially fuels based on biological matter, are gaining more and more attention. Not only as a pure substitute of oil but also in terms of a possibility for further reduction in emission and as an option to improve the global CO2 balance. For improving the engine performance (emissions, fuel consumption, torque and drivability) the adjustment of fuel injection, the fuel evaporation process and the combustion process itself is paramount. In order to exploit the full potential of alternative fuels excellent knowledge of the fuel properties, including the impact on ignition and flame propagation, is required. This needs suitable tools for analysis of the fuel injection and combustion process. These tools have to support the optimization of the combustion system and the dynamic engine calibration for lowest emissions and most efficient use of fuel. As the term “Alternative Fuels” covers a very wide area a brief overview on available fuel types will be made.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Direct Injection on Turbocharged SI Engines - Potential and Challenges

2007-04-16
2007-01-1408
In the past application of alternative fuels was mostly concentrated to special markets - e.g. for ethanol and ethanol blends Brazil or Sweden. Now an increasing sensitivity towards dependency on crude oil significantly enhances the interest in alternative fuels. With spark ignited engines, ethanol and gasoline / ethanol blends are the most promising alternative fuels - besides CNG. The high octane number of ethanol and the resulting excellent knock performance gives significant benefits, especially with highly boosted engines. However, the evaporation characteristics of ethanol result in challenges regarding cold start and oil dilution with GDI application. This paper deals with investigations on a turbocharged DI engine operated on ethanol fuel in order to improve challenges of ethanol fuel, such as oil dilution and cold start. Cold start can be improved by injecting fuel late in the compression stroke (high pressure start) based on a refined engine design and operation strategies.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 Emission Levels for Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Automotive Propulsion Systems

2001-11-12
2001-01-3751
The well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and energy use of internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) are compared to fuel cell automotive propulsion systems. The fuel cell technologies investigated are polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. The comparison is based on driving cycle simulations of a mid-class passenger car with an inertia test weight of 1350 kg. The study shows that the optimized diesel drive train (downsized mated to an integrated starter generator) achieves the best overall energy efficiency. The lowest CO2 emissions are produced by compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Fuel cell propulsion systems achieve similar or even better CO2 emission values under hot start conditions but suffer from high energy input required during warm-up.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a Production Feasible DME Injection System

2001-09-24
2001-01-3629
Over the last few years there has been much interest in DiMethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel for diesel cycle engines. It combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot free combustion, which makes it eminently suitable for compression ignition engines. However, due to the fact that it is a gas under ambient conditions, it requires special fuel handling and a specially designed fuel injection system, which until recently, was not available. The use of the digital hydraulic operating system (DHOS), combined with a fuel handling system designed to cope with the properties of DME, enables the fuel to be safely and conveniently handled, In addition, the flexibility of the injection system enables injection pressures to be chosen according to the needs of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Designing Single-Purpose or Multi-Purpose Engines for On-Road and Non-Road Use - A Platform Approach

2004-10-26
2004-01-2689
The paper gives an overview of the partially extremely complex problem when looking into commonalities and differences of the three main application areas of engines and powertrains - automotive, agricultural tractors, and industrial engines, the last being predominantly but not exclusively focused on construction equipment. The modern “platform” approach has been used in the automotive world to a large extent and the learned experiences may be of interest for the agricultural tractors and/or the construction equipment manufacturers. On the other hand the truck engine engineers and manufacturers will learn more about the special requirements of the tractor and the industrial engines fields, and thus influence concepts and development procedures and also the production of the automotive engines which in many cases serve as the basis for derivate engines.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

2013-09-24
2013-01-2474
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Solutions for Electrified Trucks and Buses

2017-05-10
2017-01-1937
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
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