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Technical Paper

Mexico City Traffic and Los Angeles City Traffic Testing: An Approach to Test Route Development for Results Homologation

Vehicle testing on public roads is used by the automotive community in different locations to evaluate the noise characteristics of brake systems under typical customer usage conditions. These tests are generally carried out on different locations and show results with questionable compatibility as has been concluded on several investigations over the last years [1]. Global projects on the other hand mandate to have tests that can represent vehicle usage in several types of environments in order to have reliable indicators of performance on different conditions. This paper suggests a method to characterize roads on different sites and modify the route to match a specific target.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Technical Paper

FEA-Based Simulation of Exhaust Hanger Forces

Exhaust systems can be a source of vibrations that transmit inside the vehicle through the exhaust hangers. These vibrations are caused by engine excitations under acceleration. During the upfront development stage, it is important to predict accurately the forces of the exhaust hangers in order to drive a robust exhaust system design and prevent objectionable noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. This paper describes an FEA-based simulation method to predict the exhaust hanger forces. It demonstrates the effect of temperature on the exhaust dynamic behavior and its importance for an accurate prediction of the exhaust hanger forces.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Self-Certification Requirements for Adaptive Driving Beam Headlamps

Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Trivial Principal Component Regression (TPCR)

Understanding a system behavior involves developing an accurate relationship between the explanatory (predictive) variables and the output response. When the observed data is ill-conditioned with potential collinear correlations among the measured variables, some of the statistical methods such as least squared method (LSM) fail to generate good predictive models. In those situations, other methods like Principal Component Regression (PCR) are generally applicable. Additionally, the PCR reduces the dimensionality of the system by making use of covariance relationship among the variables. In this paper, an improved regression method over PCR is proposed, which is based on the Trivial Principal Components (TPC). The TPC regression (TPCR) makes use of the covariance of the output response and predictive variables while extracting principal components. A new method of selecting potential principal components for variable reduction in TPCR is also proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Lower-Body Injury Rates in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts: Field Data and Logistic Models

Lower-body injury data for adults in real-world frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were collected, analyzed, and modeled via statistical methods. Two levels of lower-body injury were considered: maximum serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+) and moderate-to-fatal (MAIS2+). In the analysis, we observed that a substantial fraction of all lower-body injured occupants had no recorded floor/toe pan intrusion: 47% of all MAIS3+ injured occupants; 69% of all MAIS2+ injured occupants. In the statistical modeling, we developed binary logistic regression models to fit the MAIS3+ and MAIS 2+ injury data. The statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05) were the speed change of the crash, postcrash floor/toe pan intrusion, level of restraint, occupant age, and occupant gender.
Technical Paper

Comparative Dynamic Analysis of Tire Tread Belt Detachments and Stepped Diameter (“Lumpy”) Tires

In this study, tests were performed with modified tires at the right rear location on a solid axle sport utility vehicle to compare vehicle inputs and responses from both: (1) staged tire tread belt detachments, and (2) stepped diameter (“lumpy”) tires. Lumpy tires consist of equal size sections of tread that are vulcanized at equidistant locations around the outer circumference of the tire casing. Some have used lumpy tires in attempt to model the force and displacement inputs created by a tire tread belt separation. Four configurations were evaluated for the lumpy tires: 1-Lump, 2-Lump (2 lengths), and 3-Lump.
Technical Paper

Analytical Life Prediction Modelling of an Automotive Timing Belt

This paper presents a methodology that makes use of computer based analytical simulation methods combined with statistical tools to predict timing belt life. This allows timing belt life to be estimated with no requirement for running test engines and associated test equipment, which is both very time and expense exhaustive. A case study on a belt driven primary drive for a V6 Diesel engine was used to illustrate the methodology. A computer based dynamic model for the belt drive system was developed and validated, and a belt life prediction model was developed, which uses tooth load predictions from the analytical model. Statistical modeling of predicted damage accumulated to failure was used to estimate the model parameters given a limited set of belt life results from a motored rig test. The practical use of the model is illustrated by predicting belt life under customer usage.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Event Data Recorders

The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of speed data recorded in the Ford PCM under steady state conditions. The authors drove 3 different test vehicles at 5 different steady state speeds from 48 to 113 kph (30 to 70 mph), making 6 runs at each speed. The authors collected PCM data after each run. For the first vehicle a GPS based Racelogic VBOX III was used to measure speed. For the second and third vehicle a purpose built speed trap with .0001 second resolution was used. The authors compare the readings and calculated differences and statistical limits. The secondary purpose is to deliberately create conditions that could result in errors of speed measured, document the conditions, and to quantify the error.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-based Modification of Impulsive Sound Character and Application to Diesel Sound Quality

A wavelet-based technique for reducing the impulsive character of sound recordings is presented. The amount of impulsive content removed may be adjusted by varying a statistical threshold. The technique is validated for a diesel idle sound-quality application. The wavelet-based modification produces a substantial decrease in impulsive character as verified by an objective sound-quality metric for engine “ticking”. Informal subjective assessment of the modified results found them to be realistic and free from artifacts. The procedure is expected to be useful for sound-quality simulation and target-setting for diesel powertrain noise and other automotive sounds containing both impulsive and non-impulsive content.
Technical Paper

Integration of SEA Tire Model with Vehicle Model

Statistical energy analysis (SEA) has recently emerged as an effective tool for design assessment in the automotive industry. Automotive OEM companies develop vehicle models to aid design of body and chassis systems. The tire and wheel suppliers develop and supply component models to OEM companies in the engineering stage. In the model development process, some information on the vehicle side or component side is necessary for model development and correlation. A suitable termination representation of the vehicle characteristics on the tire/wheel model is required. This termination should account for the dissipation of energy on vehicle body and chassis side, otherwise the component model will overestimate the vibration responses and energy levels. On the vehicle model side, a representative simplified tire/wheel model may be sufficient for full vehicle road noise simulation.
Technical Paper

Road User Risk with Older Light Trucks

Do older light trucks, often with second (and subsequent) owners, present a higher risk to either their own occupants or to other road users? And is the safety record for newer trucks better or worse than the record for their older counterparts? To answer these questions, fatalities in crashes involving at least one light truck were examined using the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Fatality rates for both occupants of the light truck and for other road users (occupants of other motor vehicles, pedestrians, etc.) in these crashes were computed, based both on the number of registered vehicles and on the vehicle miles of travel. Two trends in these fatality rates are observed. First, as light trucks age, a consistent decline is found in risk both to their own occupants and to other road users. Second, a distinct decrease is found in road user risk for newer light trucks compared to older light trucks when they were new, both for their own occupants and for other road users.
Technical Paper

Multiple Coherence Analysis on Engine Degree of Freedom Study for Exhaust System Testing

An Automotive Exhaust System Structural Key Life Test has been successfully developed, in part, due to investigations into the boundary conditions of powertrain input. The powertrain (engine and trans-mission) degree-of-freedom study (here after referred to as engine) was investigated in order to determine the sensitivity of the exhaust system to engine motion. Understanding engine motion was necessary in order to establish proper control strategy in the laboratory simulation process. Accurate reproduction of exhaust system response to input road load events was crucial to reproducing known exhaust system fracture modes in early life wear-out conditions. A method multiple coherence analysis has been used to analytically measure the degree of severity between engine input motion and exhaust system output response by analyzing dynamic strain and acceleration. Removing one engine control input at a time, a multiple coherence function was calculated and the exhaust response computed.
Technical Paper

Using Camless Valvetrain for Air Hybrid Optimization

The air-hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, puts it into storage in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to assist in subsequent vehicle acceleration. In contrast to electric hybrid, the air hybrid does not require a second propulsion system. This approach provides a significant improvement in fuel economy without the electric hybrid complexity. The paper explores the fuel economy potential of an air hybrid engine by presenting the modeling results of a 2.5L V6 spark-ignition engine equipped with an electrohydraulic camless valvetrain and used in a 1531 kg passenger car. It describes the engine modifications, thermodynamics of various operating modes and vehicle driving cycle simulation. The air hybrid modeling projected a 64% and 12% of fuel economy improvement over the baseline vehicle in city and highway driving respectively.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Chassis Force Transmissibility and Applications to Road NVH Improvement

The performance of structure-borne road NVH can be cascaded down to three major systems: 1) vehicle body structure, 2) chassis/suspension, 3) tire/wheel. The forces at the body attachment points are controlled by the isolation efficiency of the chassis/suspension system and the excitation at the spindle/knuckle due to the tire/road interaction. The chassis force transmissibility is a metric to quantify the isolation efficiency. This paper presents a new experimental methodology to estimate the chassis force transmissibility from a fully assembled vehicle. For the calculation of the transmissibility, the spindle force/moment estimation and the conventional Noise Path Analysis (NPA) methodologies are utilized. A merit of the methodology provides not only spindle force to body force transmissibility but also spindle moment to body force transmissibility. Hence it enables us to understand the effectiveness of the spindle moments on the body forces.