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Technical Paper

AC Impedance Characterization and Life Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

As part of the DoD/NASA Lithium-Ion and More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) development programs, in-house life-testing and performance characterization of lithium-ion batteries of sizes 1-20 amp-hours (Ah) were performed. Using AC impedance spectroscopy, the impedance behavior of lithium-ion cells with respect to temperature, cycle number, electrode, and state-of-charge was determined. Cell impedance is dominated by the positive (cathode) electrode, increases linearly with cycle number, and exponentially increases with decreasing temperature. From cell performance testing, we have seen the cell behavior is extremely sensitive to the ambient temperature. Preliminary battery performance results as well as AC impedance and life cycle test results are presented below.
Technical Paper

Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers

Advances in the past decade of the energy and power densities of lithium-ion based batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and various consumer applications have been substantial. Rechargeable high rate lithium-ion batteries are now exceeding 6 kW/kg for short discharge times (<15 seconds). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at >1.0 kW/kg). Some preliminary test data on a rechargeable lithium-ion polymer battery is presented. The use of high rate rechargeable lithium-ion batteries as a function of onboard power, electric laser power level, laser duty cycle, and total mission time is presented. A number of thermal management system configurations were examined to determine system level weight impacts. Lightweight configurations would need a regenerative thermal energy storage subsystem.
Technical Paper

F-16 Battery/Charger Evaluation

As the maintenance and disposal costs of aircraft batteries have risen, it has become critical to increase battery lifetime and to reduce maintenance cycles. This has led to the development of charging techniques designed to increase battery life while continuing to satisfy battery performance requirements. However, the cost of battery chargers accounts for 60% to 80% of the battery/charger system cost. AFRL/PRPB has initiated an in-house project to evaluate F-16 batteries using the existing F-16 charger. The objective is to determine which batteries can pass all F-16 performance and lifetime requirements using this charger. Several batteries were procured from several sources and two F-16 chargers are on loan to us from Sacramento/ALC. Depending on the outcome of this phase the project may be extended to include other aircraft and other chemistries such as Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-Ion. Results to date and future plans will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Lithium-Ion Performance Testing and AC Impedance Characterization

The performance and life of lithium-ion batteries is highly dependent on factors such as temperature, charge/ discharge rate, depth-of-discharge (DOD), charge cut-off voltage, and battery design. The purpose of this on-going investigation is to characterize the state-of-the-art in lithium-ion battery performance and life as a function of some of these factors. Cycle life data on 18650 cells as well as a four cell series connected 20 Ahr lithium-ion battery (16.4 volt) is presented. External cell temperatures as a function of discharge rate and location for 20 Ahr lithium-ion cell are given. Preliminary ac impedance results for the 20 Ahr cell are also given.