Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2012-03-23
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Future Concept of Operations: The Airbus ADS-B Perspective

2010-09-30
2010-01-1660
This paper describes the Airbus plans to use ADS-B in the future concept of operations in both the European SESAR and the US NEXTGEN concepts of operations. It details the different steps that are currently considered by Airbus roadmap to deploy ADS-B services and functions. In particular, the following points are described: Use of ADS-B OUT in Non Radar Airspace Use of ADS-B IN and the associated Airbus functions to offer a better Air Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSAW) package: the various applications for airborne, in trail climb/descent procedures or enhanced visual acquisition are particularly detailed. Use of ADS-B for the future Spacing function as currently considered in the initial ASAS implementation for SESAR: the three “Remain Behind”, “Merge at Waypoint then Remain behind” and the “Heading then merge behind” applications are explained.
Technical Paper

IT Security Management of Aircraft in Operation: A Manufacturer's View

2011-10-18
2011-01-2717
Over the last few years, IT systems have quickly found their way onboard aircrafts, driven by the continuous pursuit of improved safety and efficiency in aircraft operation, but also in an attempt to provide the ultimate in-flight experience for passengers. Along with IT systems and communication links came IT security as a new factor in the equation when evaluating and monitoring the operational risk that needs to be managed during the operation of the aircraft. This is mainly due to the fact that security deficiencies can cause services to be unavailable, or even worse, to be exploited by intentional attacks or inadvertent actions. Aircraft manufacturers needed to develop new processes and had to get organized accordingly in order to efficiently and effectively address these new risks.
Technical Paper

On-line Estimation of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

2011-10-18
2011-01-2769
The introduction of Fly-By-Wire (FBW) and the increasing level of automation contribute to improve the safety of civil aircraft significantly. These technological steps permit the development of advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. Accordingly, this higher complexity requires extending the availability of aircraft states, some flight parameters becoming key parameters to ensure a good behaviour of the flight control systems. Consequently, the monitoring and consolidation of these signals appear as major issues to achieve the expected autonomy. Two different alternatives occur to get this result. The usual solution consists in introducing many functionally redundant elements (sensors) to enlarge the way the key parameters are measured. This solution corresponds to the classical hardware redundancy, but penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, power consumption, space requirements, and extra maintenance needs.
Technical Paper

Innovation Readiness: Past and Current Drivers in Aeronautical Engineering

2011-10-18
2011-01-2501
This paper proposes a rearview on aeronautical innovation, addresses some 2000-2010 new products, and suggests elements of future vision, serving passengers aspirations. Over 100 years, aeronautics brilliantly domesticated flight: feasibility, safety, efficiency, international travel, traffic volume and noise, allowing airlines to run a business, really connecting real people. Despite some maturations, new developments should extend the notion of passenger service. So far, turbofans became silent and widebodies opened ‘air-bus’ travel for widespread business, tourism or education. Today airports symbolize cities and vitalize regional economies. 2000-2010 saw the full double-decker, the new eco-friendly freighter and electronic ticketing. In technology, new winglets and neo classical engines soon will save short-range blockfuel. In systems and maintenance, integrated modular avionics and onboard data systems give new flexibility, incl by data links to ground.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diagnosis for Sustainable Flight Guidance and Control: The European ADDSAFE Project

2011-10-18
2011-01-2804
The state-of-practice for aircraft manufacturers to diagnose guidance & control faults and obtain full flight envelope protection at all times is to provide high levels of dissimilar hardware redundancy. This ensures sufficient available control action and allows performing coherency tests, cross and consistency checks, voting mechanisms and built-in test techniques of varying sophistication. This hardware-redundancy based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) approach is nowadays the standard industrial practice and fits also into current aircraft certification processes while ensuring the highest level of safety standards. In the context of future “sustainable” aircraft (More Affordable, Smarter, Cleaner and Quieter), the Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) design objectives, originating from structural loads design constraints, are becoming more and more stringent.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Hypervisors for Security-Enhanced Avionics Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2805
Traditionally, software in avionics has been totally separated from open-world software, in order to avoid any interaction that could corrupt critical on-board systems. However, new aircraft generations need more interaction with off-board systems to offer extended services, which makes these information flows potentially dangerous. In a previous work, we have proposed the use of virtualization to ensure dependability of critical applications despite bidirectional communication between critical on-board systems and untrusted off-board systems. We have developed a test bed to assess the performance impact induced by the use of virtualization. In this work, various configurations have been experimented that range from a basic machine without an OS up to the complete architecture featuring a hypervisor and an OS running in a virtual machine. Several tests (computation, memory, network) are carried out, and timing measures are collected on different hypervisors.
Technical Paper

Flight Parameter Estimation for Augmented Flight Control System Autonomy

2011-10-18
2011-01-2801
In the framework of the aircraft global optimization, for future and upcoming programs, current research interests include more Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) autonomy for a more easy-to-handle aircraft. A possible solution is to increase the number of redundant flight parameter sensors but to the detriment of the aircraft weight and so to the cost and performances. This paper proposes an algorithm using PLS (Partial Least Squares) to estimate a flight parameter from independent sensor measurements. The estimates are then used as so-called “software” or “virtual” sensors, allowing aircraft weight saving. This algorithm is based on an iterative processing and thus can be used in real time in the embedded flight control computer. Furthermore, the resulting flight parameter estimates can be used to detect failures. Different detection strategies are proposed and results show that this method can lead to robust detections.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Small Scale Icing Tunnel Test Results

2007-09-24
2007-01-3328
A test has been performed using a scaled aircraft wing section in an icing tunnel facility. The model had an electro-thermal ice protection system installed. The tests performed considered both anti-icing and de-icing modes of operation. The results have been assessed using numerical codes and the effect of model scaling has been considered. The non-scaled skin thickness of the model was found to modify the predicted behaviour of a full-scale installation, predominantly due to lateral conduction effects. The extent of this has been assessed and recommendations are made as to the performance that may be expected at full-scale.
Technical Paper

Minimizing Impact on Climate in Aircraft Design

2007-09-17
2007-01-3807
A two-level approach for the consideration of climate change in the aircraft design process is proposed. Depending on the availability of suitable atmospheric metrics, the methodology has been put into practice only recently. The assessment of technology and design changes is enabled with regard to the impact of aircraft on climate. First example applications show that the methodology is not yet ready for full industrial application, but that it can give useful hints for the orientation of aircraft concepts for the future aviation system.
Technical Paper

Stick Fastener Feed System for Large Variety & Small Quantity

2008-09-16
2008-01-2320
Electroimpact has developed a new Fastener Feed System which provides an automated solution for fasteners previously hand fed via drop tubes. The hardware is simple, compact, and is supplied a fraction of the cost of hoppers or cartridges. It can be used as a primary feed system or it can be used as an auxiliary feed system when combined with feed systems designed for high quantities of fasteners. We have installed this system on the A380 Stage 0 LVER lower panel wing machines and feed 5 diameters, 10 grips each, for a total of 50 different fastener types. This system moves 547 total fasteners per ship set from manual feed to automatic feed, saving considerable build time.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

2019-06-10
2019-01-1983
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step.
Technical Paper

Extension of a 2D Algorithm for Catch Efficiency Calculation to Three Dimensions

2019-06-10
2019-01-2013
Accurate calculation of the catch efficiency β is of paramount importance for any ice accretion calculation since β is the most important factor in determining the mass of ice accretion. A new scheme has been proposed recently in [1] for accurately calculating β on a discretized two-dimensional geometry based on the results of a Lagrangian droplet trajectory integrator (start and impact conditions). This paper proposes an extension to the algorithm in Ref. [1], which is applicable to three-dimensional surfaces with arbitrary surface discretization. The 3D algorithm maintains the positive attributes of the original 2D algorithm, namely mass conservation of the impinging water, capability to deal with overlapping impingement regions and with crossing trajectories, computational efficiency of the algorithm, and low number of trajectories required to reach good accuracy in catch efficiency.
Technical Paper

Ranking of Thick Ice Shapes Based on Numerical Simulation for Certification

2019-06-10
2019-01-1944
The objective of this paper is to present a numerical method to rank thick ice shapes for aircraft by comparing the ice accretion effects for different icing scenarios in order to determine the more critical ice shape. This ranking allows limiting the demonstration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in iced condition during certification to a reduced number of ice shapes. The usage of this numerical method gives more flexibility to the determination of the critical ice shapes, as it is not dependent of the availability of physical test vehicles and/or facilities. The simulation strategy is built on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is validated based on a representative test case, both in terms of aircraft geometry and ice shapes. Validation against existing experimental results shows the method exhibits an adequate level of reliability for the ranking of thick ice shapes.
Technical Paper

Application of EASA Part 21 Requirement Regarding Change to Aircraft Type Design by Airbus

2013-09-17
2013-01-2124
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review.
Technical Paper

Future Potentials on Hydraulic Power Generation Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2796
In the past decades hydraulic systems have dominated actuation tasks in aerospace applications. Even today hydraulic actuation remains in first line for primary flight controls as well as for heavy consumers such as landing gear or auxiliary applications in the perimeter of military functions. Also in future, hydraulic systems and its consumers are candidates to fulfil operational and functional requirements and provide respective improvements to ensure product competitiveness. Thus, this paper deals with potential improvements on hydraulic system level such as, fluid monitoring and light weight applications linked to impacts on aircraft level or interfacing systems.
Technical Paper

Aeronautical Fuel Cell System Application and Associated Standardization Work

2006-11-07
2006-01-3093
Airbus is a leading aircraft manufacturer with the position as technology driver and a distinct customer orientation, broad commercial know-how and high production efficiencies. It is constantly working on further and new development of its products from ecological and economical points of view. Fuel Cell Systems (FCS) on board of an aircraft provide a good opportunity to address both aspects. Based on existing and upcoming research results it is necessary to find trend-setting measures for the industrial implementation and application of this technology. Past and current research efforts have shown good prospects for the industrial implementation and application of the fuel cell technology. Being an efficient source of primarily electric power the fuel cell would be most beneficial when used in conjunction with electrical systems.
Journal Article

OBIGGS for Fuel System Water Management - Proof of Concept

2011-10-18
2011-01-2793
Fuel on-board dehydration during flight technologies has been modeled and experimentally studied on a laboratory testing setup in normal specific gas flow rates range of 0.0002-0.0010 sec-₁. Natural air evolution, ullage blowing and fuel sparging with dry inert gas have been studied. It has been shown that natural air evolution during aircraft climb provides a significant, substantial, but insufficient dehydration of fuel up to 20% relative. Ullage blowing during cruise leads to a constant, but a slow dehydration of fuel with sufficient column height concentration gradient. Dry inert gas sparging held after the end of the natural air evolution or simultaneously with natural air evolution provides rapid fuel dehydration to the maximum possible values. It potentially may eliminate water release and deposition in fuel to -50°C. It has been found that for proper dehydration, necessary and sufficient volume of dry inert gas to volume of fuel ratio is about 1.
Journal Article

A Model-based Solution to Robust and Early Detection of Control Surface Runaways

2011-10-18
2011-01-2803
This paper discusses the design of a model-based fault detection scheme for robust and early detection of runaways in aircraft control surfaces servo-loop. The proposed scheme can be embedded within the structure of in-service monitoring systems as a part of the Flight Control Computer (FCC) software. The final goal is to contribute to improve the performance detection of unanticipated runaway faulty profiles having very different dynamic behaviors, while retaining a perfect robustness. The paper discusses also the tradeoffs between adequacy of the technique and its implementation level, industrial validation process with Engineering support tools, as well as the tuning aspects. The proposed methodology is based on a combined data-driven and system-based approach using a dedicated Kalman filtering. The technique provides an effective method ensuring robustness and good performance (well-defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates).
Technical Paper

Applying a Concept for Robot-Human Cooperation to Aerospace Equipping Processes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2655
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
X