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Toyota's Comprehensive Environmental Technology: Providing Choices for Sustainable Mobility

2011-11-04
In the pursuit of a sustainable transportation systems, Toyota is considering a comprehensive approach pursuing multiple advanced technologies to address three primary issues: GHG, Petroleum Use, and Air Quality. Vehicles must be ready for and affordable to the mass market to provide the customer choices to meet their transportation needs whether it is EV's, Hybrids, Plug-In Hybrids or Fuel Cell Hydrogen Hybrids. Our studies have shown that EVs have the potential to provide significant improvements in energy utilization especially combined with other advanced technologies. Toyota believes that a combination of these technolgies will provide complementary solution that enables a sustainable transportation system. Presenter Takehito Yokoo, Toyota Motor Corporation
Technical Paper

New Simulation Method Using Experimental Modal Analysis for Prediction of Body Deformation during Operation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0494
A method for predicting body deformation during operation, which cannot be measured by conventional methods, has been developed. The method creates a body model based on the characteristics extracted by modal analysis of the results of a vibration testing of an actual vehicle. The model is combined with a suspension model, using multibody dynamics software, and body deformation calculations are performed. In this paper, the influence of body deformation on vehicle controllability and stability is studied and the usefulness of the method is verified.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in Hybrid Vehicle Development

2001-04-30
2001-01-1415
The world's first mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car, the “Prius”, was introduced into the Japanese market in 1997. By the time it was introduced into the American and European markets in Mid-2000, its fuel consumption and exhaust emissions had been further improved while achieving superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with 1.5-liter engines even in these competitive markets. This paper describes NV reduction technology for problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise and vibration at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also compares the overall NV performance of the hybrid vehicle with conventional gasoline engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1355
We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

New Five-Speed Automatic Transmission for FWD Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0871
AISIN AW has developed a five-speed automatic transmission “55-50SN” for front wheel drive (FWD) vehicles. This new 55-50SN has been developed with a concept to minimize length and mass increase compared with the current four-speed automatic transmission, and is one of the most compact five-speed automatic transmissions in the world. This has been accomplished by newly developed planetary gear sets, a new differential, and a new squeezed torque converter. In addition, the control system is made by a unique design to maintain the excellent compactness and to achieve a high quality smooth shift feeling. This paper describes the construction, characteristic, and function of this five-speed automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2029
This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

The Establishment of Laboratory Test Method for Gelation of Engine Oil Containing Magnesium Detergents

2001-05-07
2001-01-1986
It has been reported that engine oils containing magnesium detergents gel under special conditions. The authors have previously reported on the mechanism by which magnesium detergents form needle crystals, which is the main cause of the gelation[1]. For this article, the authors conducted tests in actual vehicles using several types of engine oils containing magnesium detergents, including oils for which gelation problems have been reported in the market. The gelation was reproduced, and the test oils were ranked by their propensity to gel. In addition, a laboratory test method was used in which water and CO2 were mixed into engine oil under controlled conditions, then left stored in a bottle for twenty days, after which the kinematic viscosity and the quantity of insolubles of the mixture were measured. The study demonstrated the correlation between the laboratory test method and the actual vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1815
Effects of fuel distillation characteristics and cetane number on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion were investigated for the purpose of reducing NOx and PM emissions from a direct injection diesel engine. The test engine had a hole type injection nozzle for conventional diesel combustion at high load operation. A low compression ratio and cooled EGR were applied to the test engine in order to reduce the compression temperature for avoiding pre-ignition. The investigation results show that, in the case of ignition control by EGR, a light fuel with lower distillation characteristics had an advantage of reducing smoke at higher loads. This means that high volatility fuel is effective in promoting lean mixture formation of fuel and air during the ignition delay. Moreover, lowering the cetane number was effective in reducing NOx emissions by suppression of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Bioplastics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1124
We studied the adoption of plastics derived from plants (bioplastics) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for automotive parts in order to contribute to suppressing the increase in CO, emissions. For this application. major improvements of heat and impact resistance are needed. As a method to improve heat resistance, we developed PLA combined with clay of high heat resistance. As a result. we succeeded in synthesizing a PLA-clay nanocomposite using 18(OH)2-Mont. In-mold crystallization of PLA-clay nanocomposite lead to the great suppression of storage modulus decrease at high temperature. which in turn improved the heat resistance of PLA.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement With High-Energy X-Ray CT-Scan

2003-03-03
2003-01-1033
Digital engineering has been utilized in product development to improve the quality. The actual object was measured and digitized into the three-dimensional (3-D) data, and the requirement of evaluating and analyzing the CAD data has been increased in these activities. So, we developed the technology that measures the actual object and obtains the 3-D model data for general automotive parts. The features of this new system are high-speed and high-accuracy by using high energy X-ray CT technology and 3-D model data technology. 3-D model data can be obtained for about 5 hours in case of the engine block and the error is 0.1mm or less. We also show the examples of the new automotive parts development using this technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Active Rear Steer System Applying H∞-μ synthesis

1998-02-23
981115
A new active rear steer (ARS) system has been developed. ARS is an electric four wheel steering system controlled by new logic(designed by H∞-μ synthesis) which maintains good control performance even if the vehicle parameters and /or road surface conditions are changed. ARS control is a typical technology to prevent vehicle side -slip in linear region of tire characteristic. This system offers easy control and reduces vehicle behavior of yawing motion before approaching critical limit. By combining ARS and vehicle stability control (VSC), it is possible to support driving precisely from normal driving to excessive driving. This paper describes the details of this new system which has been installed on 1997 model TOYOTA ARISTO for practical use in JAPAN.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid/Battery ECU for the Toyota Hybrid System

1998-02-23
981122
For energy saving and global warming prevention, Toyota has developed Toyota Hybrid System (THS) for mass-produced passenger cars, which achieves drastic improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in exhaust emissions compared to conventional gasoline engine cars. The THS has two motive power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. It's power is supplied either from an engine (controlled by the engine ECU) or an electric motor (controlled by the motor ECU) which is powered by a high-voltage battery (monitored by the battery ECU). These ECUs are controlled by a hybrid ECU. Each ECU has been developed with a fail-safe system in mind, to ensure driver safety in case of vehicle breakdowns. Among these ECUs, this paper reports particularly on the newly introduced ECUs: hybrid ECU and battery ECU. In the development of these ECUs, special attention was focused on fail-safe performance.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Engine Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluoroelastomers

1998-10-19
982437
Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

The Development of Fluid for Small-Sized and Light Weight Viscous Coupling

1998-05-04
981446
For viscous couplings(VCs) as a driving force transmission system of vehicles, requirement of torque characteristics has been getting very stringent. Because the torque characteristics significantly affect four wheel drive vehicles' abilities such as traction performance and driving stability. Furthermore, the recent concerns on high fuel economy, low pollution and low cost require that design of VCs should be increasingly compact, light weighted and excellent in transmitted torque's stability. It is an easy way to increase viscosity of viscous coupling fluids(VCFs) for the compact design of the VC. But it might cause increase in heat load and wear of plates which resulted in degradation of the VCF. The degradation affects VCF's viscosity and impairs stability in torque transmission. Therefore it is indispensable to develop high viscosity VCF which is excellent in long-term viscosity's stability.
Technical Paper

Material Consolidation for Automotive Interior and Exterior Parts through Development of a High Performance Material

1998-09-29
982410
Through a polymer design and precise morphology control, The Super Olefin Polymer, TSOP-1 and TSOP-5 were developed for the material consolidation of interior and exterior parts, respectively. Due to a good balance of TSOP performance, several conventional materials were consolidated into one material for each application. Accordingly, considerable amounts of weight reduction and cost savings have been obtained. In addition to the excellent recyclability of TSOP, the coated bumpers collected from the market were re-utilized through paint decomposition technology. The first dashboard construction, molded partially with foam-padded skin, was also realized. The current amount of TSOP used in a vehicle is about 30% of the total amount of plastic materials. Through the usage of TSOP, 70% of the material consolidation has been achieved.
Technical Paper

The Development of Toyota Fantasy Print System

1998-09-29
982344
Recently, the demands of vehicle owners have become more diversified. This is particularly true in the paint appearance of the vehicle. Responding to these demands Toyota has developed an ink jet painting system, Toyota Fantasy Print System. This system can illustrate practically any picture which the customer desires. The system utilized a subtractive method of paint mixture which mixes or piles up these four permeable inks. The development of durable ink as well as equipment which can efficiently and effectively apply the ink onto the required contoured surface.
Technical Paper

A Study on Energy-Absorbing Mechanism of Plastic Ribs

1998-09-29
982346
This paper describes development of a numerical simulation method for the FMVSS 201 testing. This method considers not only deformation but also fracture of plastic materials. a simplified calculation method for predicting the load during impact of absorbing plastic materials was introduced from the numerical simulation results. By applying this simplified calculator method trial and error in development would be reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Robot Control Method for Curved Seal Extrusion

1998-09-29
982366
The glass-integrated Curved Seal Extrusion (hereafter called “CSE”) is a new technology for manufacturing automobile-window mole. This technology is to extrude and stick mole directly on 3-D shaped window-glass by using the combination of a multi-axes robot and an extruding machine. This process could not be realized through the previous robot technology whose primary purpose was transporting goods, which did not necessitate real-time speed control. This time, we adopted a robot for the purpose of processing plasticity molding. For the purpose of improving formability, productivity, and appearance quality, we optimized the robot's movements and devised a method to vary the molding speed of the extruding machine. Furthermore, we have established a mass production technology by developing the optimum robot control method.
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