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Technical Paper

Wheel Speed Sensor Applying the Eddy Current Effect Through the High-Frequency Modulated Magnetic Field

This active-drive wheel speed sensor, developed by the high-frequency magnetic system, enables detection of very slow wheel speeds - hitherto difficult to accomplish with any conventional type of Magnetic Pick up - by applying the eddy current effect through the high-frequency magnetic field. The following report presents an analysis of the magnetic circuit which integrates the magnetic-field generating coil with the detection rotor, and the unique circuit system which ensures strength against eccentricity of the wheel rotor and air gap variations, etc.
Technical Paper

The Development of Integrated Injection Molding for Actuator Casing

As automotive electronic systems advance, the wire harness is the mainstream for necessary wiring in resin-made motor-driven actuators with wire connection labor and purchased-parts accounting for the majority of costs. As a means to eliminating the harness, there is a method of forming the conductive material on the inside, but this method leads to cost increases when there is a comparatively large number of wires because the required die insertion time becomes longer and automatic insertion equipment becomes necessary. The following paper reports on an integrated high-speed process that combines stamping and injection molding into a single process.
Technical Paper

A Driver-Side Airbag System Using a Mechanical Firing Microminiature Sensor

By developing a mechanical-firing sensor using rotational inertia effect, we have completed miniaturization of the sensor and have developed a new-type mechanical-firing airbag system. This airbag system has been confirmed to have superior occupant protection performance after conducting a variety of vehicle crash tests and sled tests.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Production Systems Using Artificial Intelligence - Application to Doorlock Assembly System

As a part of our process engineering (planning) steps and in order to shorten the initial flow control after the implementation of a production system, we have been adopting countermeasures for defects that have been forecasted by the application of FMEA. However, due to this having to be done with limited information (which is dependent upon the skill level of the operator) and due to the fact that the effects of each particular countermeasure are not fully understood, we cannot be certain that the measures implemented during the planning stages are thorough enough. The current situation is that countermeasures for most issues are being handled during the initial flow control stages based on the trial-and-error method. Given this situation, normally, it would take us more than three months from the time of line-off (start of production) to achieve our target rate of capacity utilization.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Directional Stability for Transient Steering Maneuvers Using Active Brake Control

In this paper, we discuss vehicle directional stability and introduce advanced stability control (ASTC) to stabilize the vehicle during severe cornering. Vehicle behavior in a transient steering condition during severe cornering was analyzed by computer simulation. It was found that applying an external yaw moment makes the vehicle more stable. The effect of controlling the brake force response is also evaluated by simulation to determine the brake actuator response criteria. The actual vehicle test was performed with a pylon slalom using a hydraulic brake actuator. It is verified that the ASTC stabilizes the vehicle for transient steering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

GPS Receiver Using In-Vehicle Diversity Antenna

The usage of GPS (Global Positioning System) in various fields is growing. The best solution known for GPS outage problems in vehicle navigation systems is DR (dead reckoning). An inertial system based on distance and heading sensors backs up the GPS equipment by relaying information during periods without satellite visibility. Because the DR inertial system delivers relative positions and GPS absolute positions, it seems logical to combine the two to minimize the cumulative drift errors,mainly due to distance and heading sensor resolution. For in-vehicle GPS receiver, there are problems in maintaining the operation performance even in unfavorable environments like an urban area and using antenna layout which does not hinder the vehicle design. In the text,the solutions to these problems and a new type GPS receiving system which is equipped with Toyota Electro-Multivision(1) are described.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicle Control System Using an Image Processing Sensor

Development of a system which utilizes technology for the recognition of a vehicle's surroundings. Research is currently taking place in many countries, the goals of which are to improve a vehicle's safety and convenience by reducing driver strain through the automation of the recognition, judgment, and operation capabilities that are needed when driving an automobile. To recognize the vehicle's surroundings, we have adopted an image sensor system which offers superior three-dimensional recognition capabilities. In this paper, we will introduce a inter vehicle distance control system which controls the vehicle's throttle and braking functions by detecting the position of the driving lane and the distance to the vehicle in front based on the images obtained by a CCD camera.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Thin Film Strain Gauge Sensors for Automotive Applications

We developed amorphous alloy thin films having TCR(temperature coefficient of resistivity) less than ±5 ppm/°C for strain gauge applications. Thin film strain gauges are directly formed on metal substrates insulated with SiO2. These gauges have excellent aging stability at high temperature. The resistivity shows a drift in ▵R/R less than ±0.03% at 120°C in 1000 hours. We developed a pressure sensor and an acceleration sensor with high accuracy and reliability, employing these gauges.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Long-Life Potentiometer for Automobiles

Aiming at improved reliability and cost reduction of position sensors for automobiles, we tackled with the challenge of developing long life contact type potentiometer which has a simple construction and cost advantage. We made clear the wear characteristics of the resistor materials and the mechanism how noise occurs, and developed a long life, low noise resistor material, and the double - layer resistor structure which has excellent characteristic in durability. We also clarified the ways of using brushes according to applications through the investigation of the relationship between the contact shape and the amount of wear of the resistor. Based on these investigation, we have developed a highly reliable throttle position sensor and a long life vehicle height sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Motor Servo Control for Rear Steering Actuator Based on Two-Degree-of-Freedom Control System

Rear steering system can improve vehicle stability using active control of the rear wheel angles. For designing the rear steering system, environmental conditions, performance deterioration due to aging and component variation as a result of manufacturing tolerance under mass production must be taken into consideration. We have applied two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) feedback control with feedforward control for the motor servo control so that the rear steering actuator can track the target rear steering angle accurately and stably. The control system is designed based upon a nominal mathematical model and its variation range. As a result, the rear steering actuator can be controlled with excellent performance and high reliability. This paper describes the mathematical model construction in the frequency domain and a robust motor servo controller design based on 2DOF feedback control with feedforward control.
Technical Paper

A Prediction Method of Vehicle Vibration caused by the Drive Torque Fluctuation at Takeoff

Clutch judder phenomenon is known as a vehicle vibration caused by the drive torque fluctuation from the clutch unit at takeoff. In this paper, a novel strategy for improving clutch judder phenomenon caused by the movement/tolerance between mechanical parts comprising the clutch system is introduced. In order to simulate the movements of the clutch system and of the vehicle drivelines precisely, we used numerical analysis software and have achieved high-grade prediction of the clutch torque fluctuation and the vehicle vibration. Using this method, we have developed a high-quality clutch system that enables smoother clutch engagement, and at the same time, development efficiency has been improved.
Technical Paper

Development of Power Sliding Door (PSD) System with Push-Pull Cable Driving Method

We have developed a power sliding door (PSD) system driven by a push-pull cable. The door closure and slide are operated by different actuators to limit the force required for a compact, light-weight drive unit. This paper introduces the concept of the PSD system using a push-pull cable drive. Two new technologies to achieve the PSD system are also described. One is the door position control for increasing the push-pull cable reliability. The other is a compact position sensor to accurately detect the sliding door's position.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Lateral Grip Margin Based on Self-aligning Torque for Vehicle Dynamics Enhancement

It is well known that the self-aligning torque decreases before lateral force is saturated. Focusing on this self-aligning torque change, an estimation method has been developed to detect the friction condition between steered wheels and road surface before the lateral force reaches the friction limit. The lateral grip margin (LGM) is defined based on the self-aligning torque change, which is obtained using the EPS torque and motor current information. The LGM is theoretically analyzed based on the tire model and experimentally verified through the full-scale vehicle test. Moreover, the estimated LGM is applied for the chassis control systems to improve the vehicle dynamics performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Occupant Classification System

Introduction of occupant classification system which has load sensor with a strain gauge built into the seat structure, and identifies occupant's physique by measuring weight on seat, and meets the United States FMVSS requirements (new FMVSS208 Requirement).
Technical Paper

Development of Hall Effect Device Based Height Sensor

We have developed a Hall effect device based height sensor of a smaller size, and with higher temperature operation durability, as compared to conventional devices. Downsizing of the sensor is realized by decreasing a number of parts, and by employing a short bearing. Improvement in heat resistance is achieved by adopting an IC with sufficient heat resistance and a SmCo magnet with high coercive force. In addition, a sensor of a high degree of accuracy is accomplished by improvements in linearity and robustness of magnetic characteristics. Development of a small, heat-resistant and accurate height sensor will promote the spread of systems using a height sensor, such as a High Intensity Discharge (HID) headlamp.
Technical Paper

Rearview Camera Based Parking Assist System with Voice Guidance

A newly developed parking assist system, which is based on rear view camera, is disclosed. System features include ‘parallel parking aid’ with voice guidance message along with several guidelines superimposed onto the rear view camera image. Voice guide message helps driver understand appropriate timing for each procedure of parallel parking. The system was designed to let driver follow the system by voice message rather than visual guide information through the screen for safety reason. The guide algorism is designed under ‘two turns’ parking maneuvers so that required longitudinal parking space becomes minimal. A key development of this system, which is to design the guide algorism to avoid collision to adjacent vehicle during parallel parking operation, is also discussed in this paper. User can select either ‘parallel guide’ or ‘normal (such as garage parking)’ mode through touch screen switch on display surface.
Technical Paper

Sensor-Less Position Control System for Memory Seat

We have developed Sensor-less Memory Seat system that requires no position sensors such as Hall ICs etc.. It detects the rotation of DC motor by current ripple signals in motor operating current. The developed Sensor-less position control system can attenuate a wide frequency variation of Motor current noise which varies depending on motor condition and convert small current ripples to Pulse signals in proportion to the rotation of DC motor. We realized low cost position control method for use in Memory Seat system.
Journal Article

Development of the All-Surface Plated Smart Handle Through In-Vapor Deposition Technology

There are such outside door handles called smart handles which have a transmitting antenna, a lock/unlock sensor, and a sensor detection circuit, with which operation of door lock is possible just by "touching" the electrostatic-capacitance type sensor of the handles.As the design of the outside handles, body color painting and Cr plating are adopted. However, if plating is applied over the entire surface of a smart handle, electromagnetic waves transmitted from the antenna will be blocked since plating material is electrically conductive. In addition to this, touching a part other than the sensor may change the electrostatic-capacitance of the sensor, which results in unwanted functioning of the lock/unlock sensor. Because of this, only part of the handle, which does not hinder the transmission of electromagnetic waves and does not cause unwanted functioning, is covered by plating, that is called, "Partially plated specifications" (Figure 1).