Numerical simulation and experimental study on the n-heptane HCCI combustion with port injection of reaction additive
The control of ignition timing in the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) of n-heptane by port injection of reaction inhibitors were studied in a single cylinder engine. Four suppression additive including methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were used in the experiments. The inhibition effectiveness on HCCI combustion with various additives was compared under the same n-heptane equivalence ratio and total fuel equivalence ratio. The experimental results found that the suppression effectiveness increased in the order: MTBE
Reduction of Interior Booming Noise for a Small Diesel Engine Vehicle without Balance Shaft Module
Applying BSM (Balance shaft module) is a very common and effective way to reduce the 2nd-order powertrain vibration which is caused by the ill-balanced inertia force due to the oscillating masses inside an engine. However, the adoption of a BSM can also produce undesirable things especially in cost, fuel economy, starting performance, and so on. Therefore, for small vehicles, in which case cost and weight are key factors at the development stage, it is often required to develop competitive NVH performance without the expensive apparatus like a BSM. In this paper, in order to develop interior noise and vibration of a 4-cylinder vehicle without a BSM, we analyzed the contribution of some transfer paths for powertrain vibration, and could reduce interior booming noise by tuning the dynamic characteristic of the engine mount which was one of the largest transfer paths.
Development of Air Intake System for Sporty Coupe Using the Robust Design Method
The air intake system consists of air cleaner, air intake hose, air duct and several resonators. Its function is generally to maximize the engine power and minimize the air induction noise. However, the air induction sound should be sporty for sporty coupe. This paper shows the procedure of optimum design of the air intake system for sporty coupe using the Robust Design.
The Aesthetic Analysis of Sporty Design Factors in a Sports Car
The design of a product is becoming more important and it affects product preference and buying decision. The objectives of this study are first to determine the major elements affecting the feeling of exterior design from aesthetic engineering point of view, and then to extract the highly correlated design factor within the experimental result. Firstly, the buying preference is highly affected by the dynamic and elegant factors. Through deepening analysis using only 2-door type car, the ‘Cowl and Deck Point Angle * Overall Length / Overall Height’ factor is highly positive correlated, and the ‘Rear Overhang’ factor is highly negative correlated with buying preference. There are three special features of a sports car; firstly, stable (long wheel base) and aggressive (lean towards the front) design makes consumers feel dynamic. Secondly, the consumers prefer modern and sedan-like coupe design. Thirdly, sleek design line and consistent character line are preferred.
Development of Mild Hybrid City Bus with a Single Voltage Source of 28 V
The most popular issues nowadays in the automotive industry include reduction of environmental impacts by emission materials from automobiles as well as improvement of fuel economy. This paper deals with development of a ¡mild-hybrid¡ system for a city bus as an effort to increase fuel economy in a relatively reasonable expense. Three different technical tactics are employed; an engine is shut down at an engine idle state, a vehicle kinetic energy when the bus is decelerated is re-saved to a battery in the form of electricity, and finally the radiator cooling fan is operated by an electric motor using the saved electric energy with an optimal speed control. It has been demonstrated through the driving tests in a specific city mode, ¡Suwon city mode¡, that an average fuel economy is improved more than 12%, and the system can be a feasible choice in a city bus running in a city mode experiencing many stop and go¡s.
A Study on the Acoustic Simulation for the Components of an Intake System
The reduction of intake noise is a very important factor in controlling the interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly at low and major engine operating speeds. A vehicle intake system generally consists of air cleaner box, hose, duct, and filter element. Also, resonators and porous duct are included, being used to reduce intake noise. For more accurate estimation of the transmission loss (TL), it seems important to develop a CAE model that accurately describes this system. In this paper, simple methods, which can consider the effects of filter element and vibro-acoustic coupling, are suggested which could remarkably improve estimation accuracy of the TL. The filter element is assumed as equivalent semi-rigid porous materials characterized by the flow resistivity defined by the pressure drop, velocity, and thickness.
The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
Development of a Pre-Validation Mode for Cooling Module by Test and CAE
In case of cooling module rotated by belt, many sources (vehicle’s vibration, belt’s tension and thrust force by rotated fan) are acting on it. Because it is not easy to analyze them individually, there were no rig test modes for pre-validation while developing a new vehicle. In this study, we correlated the strain gauges signal to belt’s tension and fan’s thrust force, and measured acceleration of a vehicle and cooling module by driving a vehicle on the several test roads. In that case of measured acceleration data, we could analyze it by using PDF and construct the representative rig test modes considering vibrational fatigue characteristics by using the FDS. These modes can be utilized while developing a new vehicle without measuring anymore. Also, we could understand each load’s characteristics. It is confirmed that the factors affecting the fatigue were not only the vehicle’s vibration but also the belt’s installation tension.
A Study of the Half Order Modulation Control for Diesel Combustion Noise by Using Model Based Controller Design
This model based investigation is carried out in order to control the half order modulation for diesel engines using by virtual calibration approach and proposes a feedback control strategy to mitigate cylinder to cylinder imbalance from asymmetric cylinders torque production. Combustion heat release analysis is performed on test data to understand the root cause of observed cylinder to cylinder pressure variations. The injected fuel variations are shown to cause the observed pressure variations between cylinders. A feedback control strategy based on measured crank shaft position is devised to control the half order modulation to balance the combustion pressure profile between cylinders. This control strategy is implemented in Simulink and is tested in closed-loop with the diesel engine model in AMESim. The closed-loop performance indicates that the half order modulation is considerably improved while having minimal impact on the fuel consumption.
A Study on Automated Tuning of the Head Gasket Coolant Passage Hole of the Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using Optimization Technology
Tuning the size and position of the cooling water holes in the head gasket during engine cooling system development is generally positioned at the final stage of the cooling system hardware design. Until now, the gasket hole tuning operation was dependent on the case study through repetitive CFD analysis. In this process, there was a difference in the optimization level by know-how and expertise of the person in charge. In this study, a gasket hole tuning technique was developed using optimization algorithms to improve the level of optimization. First, select factors and perform screening using the DOE(Design Of Experiments) method, and then find the optimal gasket hole size and arrangement through the optimal design process based on the results of the CFD analysis planned by DOE.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing
In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
Numerical Study of Combustion Processes and Pollutant Formation in HSDI Diesel Engines
The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger
High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Geometric Effects on Stiffness in Big End Structure of Connecting Rod
The main role of the connecting rod in the engine is to deliver the firing load to the crankshaft. In order to carry out successfully the function, it is need to grasp the rotating crankshaft and also to keep the good stiffness of the big-end of the connecting rod in acceptable ranges during engine operation. When the stiffness of the big-end is needed to be reinforced, in general, some geometric dimensions are simply increased without consideration of their complex effects on deformation. Sometimes the reinforced geometry causes negative effects on the stiffness. This paper focuses on the effect of geometric parameters on stiffness in the big-end structure of connection rod by using Taguchi method. It is found that the side flange is the most influencing parameters. The FEA simulated results are compared with experiments.
Theoretical and Experimental Flow Analysis of Exhaust Manifolds for PZEV
As the current and future emission regulations become stringent, the research on exhaust manifold with CCC (Close Coupled Catalyst) has been the interesting and remarkable subject. To design of exhaust manifold with CCC is a difficult task due to the complexity of the flow distribution caused by the pulsating flows that are emitted at the exhaust ports. This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental approach to improve catalyst flow uniformity through the basic understanding of exhaust flow characteristics. Computational and experimental approach to the flow for exhaust manifold of conventional cast type, stainless steel bending type with 900 cell CCC system in a 4-cylinder gasoline engine was performed to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases.
Design and Development of a Spray-guided Gasoline DI Engine
Adopting the Spray-guided Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) concept, a new multi-cylinder engine has designed. The engine has piezo injectors at the central position of its combustion chamber, while sparkplugs are also at the center. The sparkplug location is designed so that the spark location is at the outer boundary of the fuel spray where the appropriate air-fuel mixture is formed. A few important operating parameters are chosen to investigate their effects on the combustion stability and fuel consumption. The final experimental results show a good potential of the SGDI engine; the fuel consumption rate was much less than that of the base Multi Port Injection (MPI) engine at various engine operating conditions.
Control of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems
In order to understand the automotive PEM fuel cell system, mathematical system modeling is conducted and the model is implemented and simulated by using the Matlab®/Simulink®. The components such as fuel cell stack, air supplier, and radiator are modeled individually and integrated into a system level. The PEM fuel cell system operation control includes thermal management, air supply control, hydrogen supply control, fuel cell stack protection control, and load following control. In the thermal management, the inlet and outlet temperature of coolant are controlled to operate the fuel cell stack in desired temperature range and to prevent flooding inside the fuel cell stack. In air supply control and hydrogen supply control, the flow rates of air and hydrogen are controlled not to starve the fuel cell stack according to the output current. A control structure for the system is developed and confirmed by using the developed simulation model.
E3 System – A Two speed Accessory Belt Drive System for Reduced Fuel Consumption
All vehicles have some or all accessories such as alternators, air conditioner compressors, power steering pumps, and water pumps. These devices are mounted on the front of the engine and are powered by a pulley mounted on the front of the crankshaft. This power represents a parasitic loss and this loss is greater at higher engine speeds. To reduce the impact of the accessories on the engine, a two speed transmission that reduces the accessories speed at off-idle conditions was designed, implemented, and tested on several vehicles. The vehicles were tested for fuel economy on the Japanese 10.15 Mode driving cycle, the FTP75 city cycle, and the HWFET Highway Cycle. Results showed an average of 5% reduction in fuel consumption and a corresponding 5% in CO2 with no impact of accessory performance and vehicle drivability. Simulations with GT-Drive software was used to determine the optimum speed reduction and the threshold switching speed that maximizes fuel savings.
Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow, Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Spray-Guided GDI Engine
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the air/fuel mixture formation and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided GDI engine using a commercial code, STAR-CD. This engine adopted the outwardly opening injector located in the center of cylinder head, which forms a hollow cone spray. The spray injection was modeled arranging multiple points using random function along the ring-shaped nozzle exit. To predict the breakup of spray, Reitz-Diwakar's breakup model was used, and the model constants were calibrated against published experimental data in a constant volume chamber. The validated spray models were applied to the analysis of spray behavior and mixture formation process inside the engine combustion chamber under operating condition of ultra-lean mixture (λ ≈ 4). To predict the combustion process, the modified eddy breakup combustion model was applied.
Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines
The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.