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Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Fastened Joints in Automotive Engineering

2007-04-16
2007-01-1204
In this paper, the methodology of finite element analyses of fastened joints in automotive engineering applications is described in detail. The analyses cover a) the possibility of slippage of the spacer with the design/actual clamp load, and under critical operating loads; b) the strength of the fastener and other structural components comprising the joint under the maximum clamp load. The types of fastened joints, the mechanical characteristics of the joints, the relationship of clamp load to torque, the design and maximum clamp loads, the finite element model meshing and assembly, the non-linearity due to contact, the determination of gaps and stack-up, and the nonlinear material simulation and loading procedures are described. An analysis example of a fastened joint on chassis is also illustrated.
Technical Paper

Strength Prediction and Correlation of Tow Hook Systems using Finite Element Analyses

2007-04-16
2007-01-1206
In this paper, tow hook systems and their functional objectives are briefly introduced. General analysis considerations in strength prediction of a tow hook system are described. These considerations contain nonlinear, clamping and material property simulations. Connections and loading simulation of a tow hook system model are discussed in details. A correlation example of a tow hook system is illustrated. This study shows that detailed modeling of a tow hook system is a fundamental requirement for accurate strength prediction and good correlation between finite element analysis and testing.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

2007-05-15
2007-01-2242
Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

2001-04-30
2001-01-1443
At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of Tire Impact Response

2001-04-30
2001-01-1481
One of the major NVH concerns for automobile manufacturers is the response of a vehicle to the impact of the tire as it encounters a road discontinuity or bump. This paper describes methods for analyzing the impact response of a vehicle to such events. The test vehicle is driven on a dynamometer, on which a bump simulating cleat is mounted. The time histories of the cleat impact response of the vehicle can be classified as a transient and a repeated signal, which should be processed in a special way. This paper describes the related signal processing issues, which include converting the time data into a continous spectrum, determination of the correct scaling factor for the analyzed spectrum, and smoothing out harmonics and fluctuations in the signal. This procedure yields a smooth frequency spectrum with a correctly scaled amplitude, in which the frequency contents can be easily identified.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Experience with the IR-TRACC Chest Deflection Transducer

2002-03-04
2002-01-0188
In 1998, Rouhana et al. described development of a new device, called the IR-TRACC (InfraRed - Telescoping Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression). In its original concept, the IR-TRACC uses two infrared LEDs inside of a telescoping rod to measure deflection. One LED serves as a light transmitter and the other as a light receiver. The output from the receiver LED is converted to a linear function of chest compression using an analog circuit. Tests have been performed with IR-TRACC units at various labs around the world since 1998. A first-generation IR-TRACC system was retrofit into a Q3 dummy by TNO. Similarly, a mid sized male Hybrid III dummy thorax and a small female Hybrid III dummy thorax have been designed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) such that each contains 4 second-generation IR-TRACC units. The second-generation IR-TRACC is the result of continued development by FTSS, especially in the areas of the analysis circuit, manufacturing and calibration methods.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0159
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
Technical Paper

Implicit and Explicit Finite Element Methods for Crash Safety Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0982
Explicit method is commonly used in crashworthiness analysis due to its capability to solve highly non-linear problems without numerous iterations and convergence problems. However, the time step for explicit methods is limited by the time that the physical wave crosses the element. Therefore, to avoid large amount of CPU time, the explicit method is usually used for non-linear dynamic problems with a short period of simulation duration. For problems under quasi-static loading conditions at pre-crash and post-crash, implicit method could be more efficient than explicit methods because the required computation time is much shorter. Due to the recent advance of crash codes, which allows both implicit and explicit computations to be performed in the same code, crash engineers are able to use explicit computation for crash simulation as well as implicit computation for some of the pre-crash quasi-static loading or post-crash spring back simulations.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler Corporation 5.7L HEMI® V8 Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2815
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC) will introduce an all-new 5.7L V8 truck engine manufactured at the new Saltillo II Engine Plant (SEPII) in Saltillo, Mexico. The product will debut in the new RAM series of pick-up trucks and marks the return of the hemispherical combustion chamber architecture. This paper covers the engine design features, simulation methods, development, and manufacturing processes. Also reviewed are the project objectives and the organizational processes used to manage and deliver the program.
Technical Paper

Specifying Steel Properties and Incorporating Forming Effects in Full Vehicle Impact Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0639
Mechanical properties of as-rolled steels used in a vehicle vary with many parameters including gages, steel suppliers and manufacturing processes. The residual forming and strain rate effects of automotive components have been generally neglected in full vehicle crashworthiness analyses. Not having the above information has been considered as one of the reasons for the discrepancy between the results from computer simulation models and actual vehicle tests. The objective of this study is to choose the right material property for as-rolled steels for stamping and crash computer simulation, and investigate the effect of forming and strain rate on the results of full vehicle impact analyses. Major Body-in-White components which were in the crash load paths and whose material property would change in the forming process were selected in this study. The post-formed thickness and yield stress distributions on the components were estimated using One Step forming analyses.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

2003-06-17
2003-01-2228
A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Parameter and Boundary Mannequin Techniques in Automotive Assembly Process

2003-06-17
2003-01-2198
This paper deals with the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques in creating human models in automotive applications. The concepts and applications of single-parameter, multiple parameter and boundary mannequin method are discussed respectively to clarify certain confusion. Emphasis is put on how to create boundary mannequins for a specific application, which may have been puzzling many engineers in practical applications. The authors would like to share their experience in using the digital human modeling software and make discussions on some common issues. A number of case studies from typical automotive manufacturing assembly operations are also presented to demonstrate the usage of the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Topology and Performance Redesign by Large Admissible Perturbations for Automotive Structural Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1058
A methodology for topology and performance redesign of complex structures by LargE Admissible Perturbations (LEAP) has been developed since 1983 in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, the University of Michigan. LEAP theory has successfully solved various redesign problems for performance and simultaneous topological and performance changes. The redesign problem is defined as a two-state problem that consists of two structural states, States S1 and S2. State S1 has undesirable characteristics or performance which does not satisfy designer specifications. The unknown State S2 has the desired structural response and/or performance. The relation between State S1 and State S2 is highly nonlinear with respect to its response or topology. So far, LEAP algorithms have solved various redesign problems for large structural changes (on the order of 100%–500%) of State S1 with only one finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Contact Mechanics Simulation for Hot Spots Investigation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0035
Rapid wear out of a disk brake due to phenomena commonly known as hot spots is one of various problems faced by brake manufacturers. Hot spots are localized high temperature areas generated on the frictional surface of a disk brake during braking. The non-uniform surface expansion caused by hot spots on the disk surface may cause pedal pulsation or known as thermal judder. This effect in the long run will shorten a brake's life. Numerical simulation of a disk brake requires the use of nonlinear contact mechanics approach. The simulation is computationally very expensive and difficult to perform. A computer simulation technique has been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Brake Core Group to investigate the hot spot phenomena since 1997. The technique was implemented on 3-D finite element models to simulate frictional contacts between the disk and its pads. Computer code ABAQUS is used for these analyses and computations are performed in Silicon Graphics, Origin 2000 machines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
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