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Technical Paper

Emissions Results for Dedicated Propane Chrysler Minivans: The 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge

1997-02-24
970808
The U.S. Department of Energy, through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition, 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Intake-Air Oxygen-Enrichment Technology to Reduce Cold-Phase Emissions

1995-10-01
952420
Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, seriously considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engine-out and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) “Off-Cycle” test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively.
Technical Paper

MARVEL: A PC-Based Interactive Software Package for Life-Cycle Evaluations of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

1995-10-01
951872
As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Energy Savings Potential from Aluminum-Intensive Vehicles

1995-10-01
951837
The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of U.S.-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that simulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower.
Technical Paper

HEV Dynamometer Testing with State-of-Charge Corrections in the 1995 HEV Challenge

1996-02-01
960740
In the 1995 HEV Challenge competition, 17 prototype Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) were tested by using special HEV test procedures. The contribution of the batteries during the test, as measured by changes in battery state-of-charge (SOC), were accounted for by applying SOC corrections to the test data acquired from the results of the HEV test. The details of SOC corrections are described and two different HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV tests and the effects on the test outcome of varying HEV designs and control strategies are examined. Although many teams had technical problems with their vehicles, a few vehicles demonstrated high fuel economy and low emissions. One vehicle had emissions lower than California's ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) emissions rates, and two vehicles demonstrated higher fuel economy and better acceleration than their stock counterparts.
Technical Paper

The 1995 HEV Challenge: Results and Technology Summary

1996-02-01
960741
The objective of this paper is to analyze and summarize the performance results and the technology used in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge. Government and industry are exploring hybrid electric vehicle technology to significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of the vehicles without sacrificing performance. This last in a three-year series of HEV competitions provided the testing grounds to evaluate the different approaches of 29 universities and colleges constructing HEVs. These HEVs competed in an array of events, including: acceleration, emissions testing, consumer acceptance, range, vehicle handling, HVAC testing, fuel economy, and engineering design. The teams also documented the attributes of their vehicles in the technical reports. The strategies and approaches to HEV design are analyzed on the basis of the data from each of the events. The overall performance for promising HEV approaches is also examined.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygen-Enriched Intake Air on FFV Exhaust Emissions Using M85

1996-05-01
961171
This paper presents the results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85, and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing nominal 21%, 23%, and 25% oxygen (by volume). Emission data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) “off-cycle” test EPA-REP05. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the oxygen content of the intake air was either 23% or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary appreciably, and NOx emissions were higher. Formaldehyde emissions were reduced by about 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle when 25% oxygen-enriched intake air was used.
Technical Paper

Testing Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emission and Fuel Economy at the 1994 DOE/SAE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

1995-02-01
950177
From June 12-20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, we were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.
Technical Paper

The 1990 SAE Methanol Challenge: Summary of a Successful Student Design Competition

1991-02-01
910570
A follow-up to the 1989 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Methanol Marathon called the Methanol Challenge was held in April 1990. One of a series of engineering student competitions using alternative fuels organized and conducted by the Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory, the Methanol Challenge pushed the technology for dedicated M85 (85% methanol, 15% hydrocarbon fuel) methanol passenger cars to new levels. The event included complete federal exhaust emissions, cold-start and driveability, performance, and fuel economy testing. Twelve teams of student engineers from the United States and Canada competed in the Challenge using Chevrolet Corsicas donated by General Motors (GM) to the schools. The winning car, from the University of Tennessee, simultaneously demonstrated extremely low emissions, dramatically increased performance, and significantly improved fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Global Warming due to Fuel Economy Improvements and Emissions Control of Criteria Pollutants: New US. Light-Duty Vehicles (19684991)

1992-08-03
929188
This paper explores the impact of U.S. emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust Emission Testing and Results

1992-10-01
922387
The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents.
Technical Paper

The Potential Benefits of Intake Air Oxygen Enrichment in Spark Ignition Engine Powered Vehicle

1993-10-01
932803
A production spark ignition engine powered vehicle (3.1-L Chevrolet Lumina, model year 1990) was tested with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 25 and 28% oxygen by volume to determine if (1) the vehicle would run without difficulties and (2) there would be emissions benefits. Standard Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions test cycles were run satisfactorily without vehicle performance anomalies. The results of catalytic converter-out (engine with a three-way catalytic converter in place) emissions showed that both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were reduced significantly in all three phases of the emissions test cycle, compared with normal air (21 % oxygen). Carbon monoxide emissions from the engine (with the three-way catalytic converter removed) were significantly reduced in the cold-phase of the test cycle. The catalytic converter also had an improved carbon monoxide conversion efficiency under the oxygen-enriched air conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Diesel-Electric Hybrid Urban Bus System

1993-08-01
931796
A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1375
Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy. This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures.
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