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Technical Paper

Emissions Results for Dedicated Propane Chrysler Minivans: The 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge

The U.S. Department of Energy, through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition, 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Intake-Air Oxygen-Enrichment Technology to Reduce Cold-Phase Emissions

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, seriously considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engine-out and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) “Off-Cycle” test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively.
Technical Paper

MARVEL: A PC-Based Interactive Software Package for Life-Cycle Evaluations of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Energy Savings Potential from Aluminum-Intensive Vehicles

The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of U.S.-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that simulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower.
Technical Paper

HEV Dynamometer Testing with State-of-Charge Corrections in the 1995 HEV Challenge

In the 1995 HEV Challenge competition, 17 prototype Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) were tested by using special HEV test procedures. The contribution of the batteries during the test, as measured by changes in battery state-of-charge (SOC), were accounted for by applying SOC corrections to the test data acquired from the results of the HEV test. The details of SOC corrections are described and two different HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV tests and the effects on the test outcome of varying HEV designs and control strategies are examined. Although many teams had technical problems with their vehicles, a few vehicles demonstrated high fuel economy and low emissions. One vehicle had emissions lower than California's ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) emissions rates, and two vehicles demonstrated higher fuel economy and better acceleration than their stock counterparts.
Technical Paper

The 1995 HEV Challenge: Results and Technology Summary

The objective of this paper is to analyze and summarize the performance results and the technology used in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge. Government and industry are exploring hybrid electric vehicle technology to significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of the vehicles without sacrificing performance. This last in a three-year series of HEV competitions provided the testing grounds to evaluate the different approaches of 29 universities and colleges constructing HEVs. These HEVs competed in an array of events, including: acceleration, emissions testing, consumer acceptance, range, vehicle handling, HVAC testing, fuel economy, and engineering design. The teams also documented the attributes of their vehicles in the technical reports. The strategies and approaches to HEV design are analyzed on the basis of the data from each of the events. The overall performance for promising HEV approaches is also examined.
Technical Paper

Testing Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emission and Fuel Economy at the 1994 DOE/SAE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

From June 12-20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, we were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.
Technical Paper

The 1990 SAE Methanol Challenge: Summary of a Successful Student Design Competition

A follow-up to the 1989 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Methanol Marathon called the Methanol Challenge was held in April 1990. One of a series of engineering student competitions using alternative fuels organized and conducted by the Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory, the Methanol Challenge pushed the technology for dedicated M85 (85% methanol, 15% hydrocarbon fuel) methanol passenger cars to new levels. The event included complete federal exhaust emissions, cold-start and driveability, performance, and fuel economy testing. Twelve teams of student engineers from the United States and Canada competed in the Challenge using Chevrolet Corsicas donated by General Motors (GM) to the schools. The winning car, from the University of Tennessee, simultaneously demonstrated extremely low emissions, dramatically increased performance, and significantly improved fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Global Warming due to Fuel Economy Improvements and Emissions Control of Criteria Pollutants: New US. Light-Duty Vehicles (19684991)

This paper explores the impact of U.S. emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust Emission Testing and Results

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents.
Technical Paper

Oxygen-Enriched Diesel Engine Experiments with a Low-Grade Fuel

A test series was conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel-flow rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine performance and emissions using Taguchi techniques. Separate experiments were conducted using a commercial-grade No. 2-diesel and a lower-grade No. 6-diesel fuel. This paper reports the test results for No. 6 fuel. Oxygen enrichment improved the combustion process with the lower-grade fuel. There was no observable change in turbocharger performance due to oxygen enrichment. The results showed significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions, a small increase in thermal efficiency and a large increase in NOx emissions when oxygen-enriched air was used. The effect of water-emulsified fuel on NOx emissions was negligible.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Diesel-Electric Hybrid Urban Bus System

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of Low Load Operation in a Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition [GDICI] Engine Using Single-Injection Strategy

The use of gasoline in a compression ignition engine has been a research focus lately due to the ability of gasoline to provide more premixing, resulting in controlled emissions of the nitrogen oxides [NOx] and particulate matter. The present study assesses the reactivity of 93 RON [87AKI] gasoline in a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine, to extend the low load limit. A single injection strategy was used in available experiments where the injection timing was varied from −42 to −9 deg ATDC, with a step-size of 3 deg. The minimum fueling level was defined in the experiments such that the coefficient of variance [COV] of indicated mean effective pressure [IMEP] was less than 3%. The study revealed that injection at −27 deg ATDC allowed a minimum load of 2 bar BMEP. Also, advancement in the start of injection [SOI] timing in the experiments caused an earlier CA50, which became retarded with further advancement in SOI timing.
Journal Article

Impact of Cetane Number on Combustion of a Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

Dual-fuel combustion using liquid fuels with differing reactivity has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated efficiency. Varying fractions of gasoline-type and diesel-type fuels enable operation across a range of low- and mid-load operating conditions. Expanding the operating range to cover the full operating range of a heavy-duty diesel engine, while maintaining the efficiency and emissions benefits, is a key objective. With dissimilar properties of the two utilized fuels lying at the heart of the dual-fuel concept, a tool for enabling this load range expansion is altering the properties of the two test fuels - this study focuses on altering the reactivity of the diesel fuel component. Tests were conducted on a 13L six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to run dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy. This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures.