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Technical Paper

National Science Foundation Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing for the Transportation Industries

2002-03-04
2002-01-0593
The National Science Foundation recently sponsored a Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM) for the Transportation Industries. The objective of the workshop was to determine future directions of research in the EBM area and to construct a roadmap for development of future research programs. While research in the fields of Design for the Environment (DfE) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) have focused on the product and product life cycles, an additional focus is needed to find and develop processes with less environmental impact within the manufacturing environment. This workshop explored EBM issues with respect to the enterprise, the products, the processes and the materials.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Binder Conditions on Draw Depth in Aluminum Panel Forming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1135
In sheet metal forming, metal flow into the die is determined by the restraint imposed by both the blankholder force and the drawbead penetration. This paper describes an experimental investigation in which both advanced binder force and drawbead technologies are used to study their effect on draw depth in the drawing of an AA6111-T4 generic non-symmetric panel. Multipoint binder loading using individual pin force adjustment applied to especially designed binder structures as well as the use of variable blankholder force were investigated in one laboratory in Germany. In another laboratory in the USA, active drawbeads were applied to the drawing of the generic panel. The results of both approaches, which are shown to be successful, are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Dilution Effects on Particle Size Measurement from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0220
A study of particle size distributions was conducted on a Cummins M11 1995 engine using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instrument in the baseline and downstream of the Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF). Measurements were made in the dilution tunnel to investigate the effect of primary dilution ratio and mixture temperature on the nuclei and accumulation mode particle formation. Experiments were conducted at two different engine modes namely Mode 11 (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm) and Mode 9 (75% load - 932 Nm, 1800 rpm). The nanoparticle formation decreased with increasing dilution ratios for a constant mixture temperature in the baseline as well as downstream of the CPF II for Mode 11 condition. At Mode 9 condition in the baseline, the dilution ratio had a little effect on the nanoparticle formation, since the distribution was not bimodal and was dominated by accumulation mode particles.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Waste Polystyrene Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Automotive Industry

2001-03-05
2001-01-0345
In the automotive industry, lost foam casting is a relatively new technology, which is gaining popularity among manufacturers. Lost foam casting is a process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is formed into the shape of the part to be cast. More complex parts are fabricated by simply gluing several simple patterns together. The pattern is then coated with a refractory material consisting of a mineral mixture and binders. Finally, hot metal is poured into the pattern, evaporating the expanded polystyrene and taking shape of the coating shell. However, the automotive industry has observed that a significant number of these fabricated, coated patterns are damaged, or do not meet specifications prior to casting. These are not reusable and inevitably are landfilled. It is the goal of this project to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive technology to recover expanded polystyrene from the glue and coating constituents.
Technical Paper

Wet Versus Dry Turning: A Comparison of Machining Costs, Product Quality, and Aerosol Formation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0343
The use of cutting fluid in machining operations not only poses a health risk to workers but also creates environmental challenges associated with fluid treatment and disposal. In an effort to minimize these concerns and eliminate the costs associated with cutting fluids, e.g., purchase, maintenance, and treatment, dry machining is increasingly being considered as an alternative. This paper is focused on comparing dry and wet machining approaches from several perspectives, including air quality, product quality, and economics. Both experimental and analytical work is presented. Experiments have been performed to determine the effect cutting fluid has on product quality and aerosol generation in the wet and dry turning of gray cast iron. To compare costs in wet and dry turning, a cost model, which includes cutting fluid-related components, has also been established.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

2001-03-05
2001-01-0908
Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Four-Stroke, EFI Snowmobile with Catalytic Exhaust Treatment

2001-09-24
2001-01-3657
The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, four-stroke engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual engine test data. The hydrocarbon emissions of the new, four-stroke snowmobile are 98% lower than current, production, two-stroke models. The noise production of the four-stroke snowmobile was 68 dBA during an independent wide open throttle acceleration test. If the four-stroke snowmobile were to replace all current, two-stroke snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the vehicles would only produce 16% of the combined automobile and snowmobile hydrocarbon emissions compared to the current 93% produced by two-stroke snowmobiles.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Simulation of the Oxidation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Species During Passive Oxidation and Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-1574
Numerical modeling of aftertreatment systems has been proven to reduce development time as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal physical and chemical processes occurring during different operating conditions. Such a numerical model for a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) was developed in this research work which has been improved from an existing numerical model briefly described in reference. The focus of this CPF model was to predict the effect of the catalyst on the gaseous species concentrations and to develop particulate matter (PM) filtration and oxidation models for the PM cake layer and substrate wall so as to develop an overall model that accurately predicts the pressure drop and PM oxidized during passive oxidation and active regeneration. Descriptions of the governing equations and corresponding numerical methods used with relevant boundary conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Parameters on Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1908
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle. Speciated engine-out hydrocarbon emissions were measured. Seven fuels were used for these tests: five blended fuels and two pure hydrocarbon fuels. One of the blended fuels was CARB Phase 2 reformulated gasoline which was used as the reference fuel. The remaining four blended fuels were made from refinery components to meet specified distillation profiles. The pure hydrocarbon fuels were iso-octane and toluene - an alkane and an aromatic with essentially identical boiling points. The five blended fuels can be grouped to examine the effects of fuel volatility and MTBE. Additionally, correlations were sought between the fuel properties and the Specific Reactivity, the exhaust “toxics”, and the pass-through of unburned fuel species.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Parameters on Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine During Constant Speed, Variable Load Tests

2000-06-19
2000-01-1909
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested at constant engine speed (2000 rpm) over a range of loads. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. This allowed examination of the engine-out emissions for late and early injection. Seven fuels were used for these tests: five blended fuels and two pure hydrocarbon fuels. These seven fuels can be divided into groups for examination of the effects of volatility, MTBE, and structure (an aromatic versus an i-alkane). Correlations between the fuel properties and their effects on emissions are presented. Use of steady state tests rather than driving cycles to examine fuel effects on emissions eliminates the complications resulting from accelerations, decelerations, and changes of injection timing but care had to be taken to account for the periodic regenerations of the lean NOx trap/catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Spark-Ignited Stratified-Charge Two Stroke Engine Operating on a Kerosine Based Aviation Fuel

1997-09-08
972737
This study examines the feasibility of broadening the fuel capabilities of a direct-injected two-stroke engine with stratified combustion. A three cylinder, direct-injected two-stroke engine was modified to operate on JP-5, a kerosene-based jet fuel that is heavier, more viscous, and less volatile than gasoline. Demonstration of engine operation with such a fuel after appropriate design modifications would significantly enhance the utilization of this engine in a variety of applications. Results have indicated that the performance characteristics of this engine with jet fuel are similar to that of gasoline with respect to torque and power output at low speeds and loads, but the engine's performance is hampered at the higher speeds and loads by the occurrence of knock.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Research Advances in Dry and Semi-Dry Machining

1997-02-24
970415
The current trend in the automotive industry is to minimize/eliminate cutting fluid use in most machining operations. Research is required prior to achieving dry or semi-dry machining. Issues such as heat generation and transfer, thermal deformation and fluid lubricity related effects on tool life and surface roughness determine the feasibility of dry machining. This paper discusses recent advances in achieving dry/semi-dry machining. As the first step, research has been conducted to investigate the actual role of fluids (if any) in various machining operations. A predictive heat generation model for orthogonal cutting of visco-plastic material was created. A control volume approach allowed development of a thermal model for convective heat transfer during machining. The heat transfer performance of an air jet in dry machining was explored. The influence of machining process variables and cutting fluid presence on chip morphology was investigated through designed experiments.
Technical Paper

Using a Manufacturing Process Classification System for Improved Environmental Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-0020
In terms of manufacturing processes and systems, decision-makers may encounter difficulty in making environmentally friendly choices. This difficulty arises largely because of the nascency of environmentally responsible manufacturing. There is a sparsity of environmental information on processes and a variety of seemingly unconnected tools, methods, concepts, etc. To help decisions-makers understand the nature of a process and identify the appropriate tools/methods that may be most suited to reducing environmental impact, a classification system for manufacturing processes is established. Methods and tools for environmentally responsible manufacturing are then identified for each class. Two examples are presented to show how the new classification system may be applied in environmentally responsible manufacturing.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed of Gasoline - Ethanol/Air Mixtures with Varying Pressure, Temperature and Dilution

2010-04-12
2010-01-0620
A numerical analysis was performed to study the variation of the laminar burning speed of gasoline-ethanol blend, pressure, temperature and dilution using the one-dimensional premixed flame code CHEMKIN™. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for a gasoline surrogate fuel was used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consist of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol mole fraction was varied from 0 to 85 percent, initial pressure from 4 to 8 bar, initial temperature from 300 to 600K, and the EGR dilution from 0 to 32% to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The laminar flame speed is found to increase with ethanol concentration and temperature but decrease with pressure and dilution.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

2010-04-12
2010-01-0557
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

2014-10-13
2014-01-2694
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
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