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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

Plug-and-Play Software Architecture to Support Automated Model-Based Control Process

2010-10-05
2010-01-1996
To reduce development time and introduce technologies to the market more quickly, companies are increasingly turning to Model-Based Design. The development process - from requirements capture and design to testing and implementation - centers around a system model. Engineers are skipping over a generation of system design processes based on hand coding and instead are using graphical models to design, analyze, and implement the software that determines machine performance and behavior. This paper describes the process implemented in Autonomie, a plug-and-play software environment, to evaluate a component hardware in an emulated environment. We will discuss best practices and show the process through evaluation of an advanced high-energy battery pack within an emulated plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

2010-10-19
2010-01-2310
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Journal Article

Impact of Energy Management on the NPV Gasoline Savings of PHEVs

2010-04-12
2010-01-1236
This paper evaluates the impact of energy management strategy on the cost benefits of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by taking into account the impact of PHEV energy management on battery life and petroleum displacement over the life of the vehicle. Using Battery in the Loop (BIL), a real battery is subjected to transient power demands by a virtual vehicle. The vehicle energy management strategy is varied, resulting in different battery utilization scenarios. Battery life, which varies with battery utilization, is estimated for the different energy management scenarios. The same representative drive cycle is used over the different energy management strategies to isolate the impact of energy management on battery utilization. PHEV gasoline savings, in comparison to a charge sustaining hybrid, are calculated for each of the energy management strategies, for a fixed distance of 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9008
In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering and Control System Development via Virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

2010-10-19
2010-01-2325
Model-based control system design improves quality, shortens development time, lowers engineering cost, and reduces rework. Evaluating a control system's performance, functionality, and robustness in a simulation environment avoids the time and expense of developing hardware and software for each design iteration. Simulating the performance of a design can be straightforward (though sometimes tedious, depending on the complexity of the system being developed) with mathematical models for the hardware components of the system (plant models) and control algorithms for embedded controllers. This paper describes a software tool and a methodology that not only allows a complete system simulation to be performed early in the product design cycle, but also greatly facilitates the construction of the model by automatically connecting the components and subsystems that comprise it.
Technical Paper

Model Architecture, Methods, and Interfaces for Efficient Math-Based Design and Simulation of Automotive Control Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0241
Many of today's automotive control system simulation tools are suitable for simulation, but they provide rather limited support for model building and management. Setting up a simulation model requires more than writing down state equations and running them on a computer. The role of a model library is to manage the models of physical components of the system and allow users to share and easily reuse them. In this paper, we describe how modern software techniques can be used to support modeling and design activities; the objective is to provide better system models in less time by assembling these system models in a “plug-and-play” architecture. With the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, the number of components that can populate a model has increased considerably, and more components translate into more possible drivetrain configurations. To address these needs, we explain how users can simulate a large number of drivetrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0903
The energy density and power density comparison of conventional fuels and batteries is often mentioned as an advantage of conventional vehicles over electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this incomplete analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency and mass of the powertrain itself. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For instance, useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same (to drive 300 miles with a payload of about 300 lb). However, the test weight of a Conventional vehicle and BEV will differ on the basis of what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

1983-02-01
830221
A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
Technical Paper

Mass Impacts on Fuel Economies of Conventional vs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0572
The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated.
Technical Paper

Testing and Analysis of Three Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0283
Current-production hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have shown a measurable improvement in fuel economy, in comparison with conventional vehicles, by using the internal combustion engine in a more efficient operating region, which therefore reduces petroleum consumption. These HEVs operate with a charge-sustaining control strategy. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) show the potential to further decrease petroleum consumption by operating in a charge-depletion control strategy, in which the energy stored in the battery pack in used during normal driving and recharged through stationary, off-board vehicle charging. This charge-depletion strategy uses more electrical energy to propel the vehicle, which displaces more petroleum. This paper discusses the testing and analysis of a Hymotion Prius PHEV, an Energy CS Prius PHEV, and a Renault Kangoo PHEV.
Technical Paper

Midsize and SUV Vehicle Simulation Results for Plug-In HEV Component Requirements

2007-04-16
2007-01-0295
Because Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) substitute electrical power from the utility grid for fuel, they have the potential to reduce petroleum use significantly. However, adoption of PHEVs has been hindered by expensive, low-energy batteries. Recent improvements in Li-ion batteries and hybrid control have addressed battery-related issues and have brought PHEVs within reach. The FreedomCAR Office of Vehicle Technology has a program that studies the potential benefit of PHEVs. This program also attempts to clarify and refine the requirements for PHEV components. Because the battery appears to be the main technical barrier, both from a performance and cost perspective, the main efforts have been focused on that component. Working with FreedomCAR energy storage and vehicle experts, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) researchers have developed a process to define the requirements of energy storage systems for plug-in applications.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Power-Split HEV Control Strategies Using Data from Several Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0291
As part of an ongoing vehicle benchmarking effort at Argonne National Laboratory, four different power-split HEVs were tested on a chassis dynamometer to analyze their operational behavior and understand the control strategy and its relationship to the individual features of the vehicles tested. The controls that select the way in which engine operation matches best engine efficiency load points appears to have evolved From the Gen 1 to the Gen 2 Toyota Prius. The Ford Escape HEV and Lexus RX400h were also analyzed by using similar methods, although the data are not as extensive as those for the Prius hybrids. Whereas the Escape HEV appeared to operate in a manner similar to that of the Gen 1 Prius, the RX400h (with its relatively large engine) loads the engine with excess battery charge to keep it operating at higher power levels - apparently to improve overall efficiency.
Technical Paper

Interdependence of System Control and Component Sizing for a Hydrogen-fueled Hybrid Vehicle

2005-09-07
2005-01-3457
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) researchers have embarked on an ambitious program to quantitatively demonstrate the potential of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines (ICEs) in hybrid-electric vehicle applications. In this initiative, ANL researchers need to investigate different hybrid configurations, different levels of hybridization, and different control strategies to evaluate their impacts on the potential of hydrogen ICEs in a hybrid system. Because of limitations in the choice of motor and battery hardware, a common practice is to fix the size of the battery and motor, depending on the hybrid configuration (starter/alternator, mild hybrid, or full hybrid) and to tune the system control for the above-available electrical power/energy. ANL has developed a unique, flexible, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform for advanced powertrain technology evaluation: The Mobile Advanced Technology Testbed (MATT).
Technical Paper

Impact of Drive Cycles on PHEV Component Requirements

2008-04-14
2008-01-1337
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) offer the ability to significantly reduce petroleum consumptions. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, participated in the definition of the battery requirements for PHEVs. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of vehicle characteristics such as vehicle class, mass or electrical accessories. However, outstanding questions remain regarding the impact of drive cycles on the requirements. In this paper, we will first evaluate the consequences of sizing the electrical machine and the battery powers to follow the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) to satisfy CARB requirements, including how many other driving cycles can be followed in Electric Vehicle (EV) mode. Then, we will study the impact of sizing the electrical components on other driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Life Cycle Costs for Electric Vans with Advanced Battery Systems

1989-02-01
890819
The performance of advanced Zn/Br2, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
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