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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Fuel Consumption Variability of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Due to Aggressive Driving

2009-04-20
2009-01-1335
Previous studies and on-road driving by consumers have shown that Hybrid Electric Vehicle fuel economy is very dependent on driver demand in both vehicle speed and vehicle acceleration [1]. The emerging technology of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) may prove to also be more sensitivity to aggressive driver demand as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. This is due to the exceptional ability of the PHEV to minimize fuel consumption at mid to low power levels by the significant use of electric propulsion which enables engine downsizing. As vehicle speed and acceleration increase so does the power demand on the powertrain. The fuel consumption is directly affected by this increase in power demand level. To examine the fuel consumption impact of changing driver characteristics on PHEV’s, testing is conducted on two vehicles (parallel PHEV and power-split PHEV) on a four wheel chassis dynamometer at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility.
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles Compared to Conventional Vehicles from 2010 to 2045

2009-04-20
2009-01-1008
Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Hybridization of a Class 8 Line-Haul Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1931
Hybrid electric vehicles have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce fuel consumption for several medium- and heavy-duty applications. In this paper we analyze the impact on fuel economy of the hybridization of a tractor-trailer. The study is done in PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), which is a modeling and simulation toolkit for light- and heavy-duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Two hybrid configurations are taken into account, each one of them associated with a level of hybridization. The mild-hybrid truck is based on a parallel configuration with the electric machine in a starter-alternator position; this allows start/stop engine operations, a mild level of torque assist, and a limited amount of regenerative braking. The full-hybrid truck is based on a series-parallel configuration with two electric machines: one in a starter-alternator position and another one between the clutch and the gearbox.
Technical Paper

Plug-and-Play Software Architecture to Support Automated Model-Based Control Process

2010-10-05
2010-01-1996
To reduce development time and introduce technologies to the market more quickly, companies are increasingly turning to Model-Based Design. The development process - from requirements capture and design to testing and implementation - centers around a system model. Engineers are skipping over a generation of system design processes based on hand coding and instead are using graphical models to design, analyze, and implement the software that determines machine performance and behavior. This paper describes the process implemented in Autonomie, a plug-and-play software environment, to evaluate a component hardware in an emulated environment. We will discuss best practices and show the process through evaluation of an advanced high-energy battery pack within an emulated plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

2010-10-19
2010-01-2310
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Journal Article

Impact of Energy Management on the NPV Gasoline Savings of PHEVs

2010-04-12
2010-01-1236
This paper evaluates the impact of energy management strategy on the cost benefits of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by taking into account the impact of PHEV energy management on battery life and petroleum displacement over the life of the vehicle. Using Battery in the Loop (BIL), a real battery is subjected to transient power demands by a virtual vehicle. The vehicle energy management strategy is varied, resulting in different battery utilization scenarios. Battery life, which varies with battery utilization, is estimated for the different energy management scenarios. The same representative drive cycle is used over the different energy management strategies to isolate the impact of energy management on battery utilization. PHEV gasoline savings, in comparison to a charge sustaining hybrid, are calculated for each of the energy management strategies, for a fixed distance of 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Test Method Standards for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles in China

2011-09-13
2011-01-2292
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Impacts of Propulsion System/Fuel Alternatives for Tripled Fuel-Economy Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1118
This paper presents the results of Argonne National Laboratory's assessment of the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of 13 combinations of fuels and propulsion systems that are potential candidates for light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles). These vehicles are being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Eleven fuels were considered: reformulated gasoline (RFG), reformulated diesel (RFD), methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and hydrogen. RFG, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG and LNG were assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engines. RFD, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biodiesel and dimethyl ether were assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engines. Hydrogen, RFG and methanol were assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0903
The energy density and power density comparison of conventional fuels and batteries is often mentioned as an advantage of conventional vehicles over electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this incomplete analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency and mass of the powertrain itself. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For instance, useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same (to drive 300 miles with a payload of about 300 lb). However, the test weight of a Conventional vehicle and BEV will differ on the basis of what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1284
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Technical Paper

Impact of Connectivity and Automation on Vehicle Energy Use

2016-04-05
2016-01-0152
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technologies mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less often, and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied, and any existing studies tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving aside electrified vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles-all midsize, one HEV, one BEV, and a conventional-are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Performance and Fuel Economy Software with Military Ground Vehicle Mission Assessment Tools

2016-04-05
2016-01-0314
A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Performance Benefits of Electrified Powertrains for Transit Buses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0321
This study presents a process to quantify the fuel saving potential of electrified powertrains for medium and heavy duty vehicles. For this study, equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo carrying capacity or performance. Several performance characteristics, that are relevant for all types of medium and heavy duty vehicles, were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry. Start-stop hybrids, parallel pre-transmission hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and battery electric vehicles are the technology choices in this study. This paper uses one vehicle as an example, explains the component sizing process followed for each powertrain, and examines each powertrain’s fuel saving potential. The process put forth in this paper can be used for evaluating vehicles that belong to all medium and heavy duty classes.
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