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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1706
Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

2001-05-14
2001-01-1714
When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

2001-05-07
2001-01-1937
Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle Costs to Consumers

1998-11-30
982182
A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan.
Technical Paper

Lifecycle Analysis for Freight Transport

1998-11-30
982206
This paper evaluates the total lifecycle impacts for hauling freight long distances over land in the United States. The dominant modes of surface freight transport in the United States are large motor trucks (tractor-semitrailer combinations) and trains. These vehicles account for a significant portion of the transportation sector's petroleum usage and atmospheric emissions (among which nitrogen oxides and particulate matter are especially important). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for reductions in energy use (in particular, petroleum use) and atmospheric emissions that result from freight transport, possibly as the result of research and development on improved technology or alternative fuels, such as Fischer-Tropsch diesel and natural gas, or from mode shifts in competitive markets. The impacts examined include energy use, both in toto and the petroleum fraction, and emissions of greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions of a Vehicle with a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

1998-10-19
982605
Their high fuel economy is making light-duty vehicles with spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines attractive. However, the implications for exhaust emissions and the effects of fuel quality on emissions are not clear for this type of engine. A Mitsubishi Legnum with a 1.8-L GDI™ engine was tested on federal test procedure (FTP) and highway fuel economy cycles. The results were compared with those for a production Dodge Neon vehicle with a 2.0-L port fuel-injection (PFI) engine. The Mitsubishi was tested with Indolene, Amoco Premium Ultimate, and a low-sulfur gasoline. The Neon was tested only with Indolene. Both engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured. Second-by-second emissions and hydrocarbon speciation were also evaluated. The SIDI engine provided up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI engine on the highway cycle. Tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the SIDI vehicle using low-sulfur fuel were 40% less than those when using Indolene.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Second-Stage Results of a Two-Stage Delphi Study

1996-08-01
961698
A two-stage Delphi study was conducted to collect information that would enable a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid electric (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994 while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and the major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. The second stage response provided the following key results. EVs will penetrate the market first followed by internal combustion engine powered HEVs while gas turbine and fuel cell powered HEVs will not have any significant penetration until after 2020. By 2020 EVs and internal combustion engine powered HEVs are projected to have approximately a 15% share of the new vehicle market.
Technical Paper

Variable Air Composition with Polymer Membrane - A New Low Emissions Tool

1998-02-01
980178
Air can be enriched with oxygen and/or nitrogen by selective permeation through a nonporous polymer membrane; this concept offers numerous potential benefits for piston engines. The use of oxygen-enriched intake air can significantly reduce exhaust emissions (except NOx), improve power density, lessen ignition delay, and allow the use of lower-grade fuels. The use of nitrogen-enriched air as a diluent can lessen NOx emissions and may be considered an alternative to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Nitrogen-enriched air can also be used to generate a monatomic-nitrogen stream, with nonthermal plasma, to treat exhaust NOx. With such synergistic use of variable air composition from an on-board polymer membrane, many emissions problems can be solved effectively. This paper presents an overview of different applications of air separation membranes for diesel and spark-ignition engines. Membrane characteristics and operating requirements are examined for use in automotive engines.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

1990-09-01
901565
Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Life Cycle Costs for Electric Vans with Advanced Battery Systems

1989-02-01
890819
The performance of advanced Zn/Br2, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.
Technical Paper

Safety Considerations for Sodium-Sulfur Batteries for Electric Vehicles

1989-08-01
891693
Safety issues and current transport (shipment and b-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating potential hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Control Analysis and Model Validation for BMW i3 Range Extender

2017-03-28
2017-01-1152
The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature). The analysis focuses on the engine on/off strategy, battery SOC balancing, and engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Long Term Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Vehicle Weight and Cost Breakdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1174
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
Technical Paper

Integration of OpenADR with Node-RED for Demand Response Load Control Using Internet of Things Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1702
The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
Technical Paper

A PEV Emulation Approach to Development and Validation of Grid Friendly Optimized Automated Load Control Vehicle Charging Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0409
There are many challenges in implementing grid aware plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging systems with local load control. New opportunities for innovative load control were created as a result of changes to the 2014 National Electric Code (NEC) about automatic load control definitions for EV charging infrastructure. Stakeholders in optimized dispatch of EV charging assets include the end users (EV drivers), site owner/operators, facility managers and utilities. NEC definition changes allow for ‘over subscription’ of more potential EV charging station load than can be continuously supported if the total load at any time is within the supply system safety limit. Local load control can be implemented via compact submeter(s) with locally hosted control algorithms using direct communication to the managed electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).
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