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Video

Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application

2012-02-16
This session focuses on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement methods and fuel effects. Presenter Leonidas D. Ntziachristos, Aristotle University Thessaloniki
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Peak Temperature Limitation in DPF Regeneration Supported by Validated Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1127
One of the main challenges in developing cost-effective diesel particulate filters is to guarantee a thermally safe regeneration under all possible conditions on the road. Uncontrolled regenerations occur when the soot reaction rate is so high that the cooling effect of the incoming exhaust gas is insufficient to keep the temperature below the required limit for material integrity. These conditions occur when the engine switches to idle while the filter is already hot enough to initiate soot oxidation, typically following engine operation at high torque and speed or active filter regeneration. The purpose of this work is to investigate engine management techniques to reduce the reaction rate during typical failure mode regenerations. A purely experimental investigation faces many difficulties, especially regarding measurement accuracy, repeatability in filter soot loading, and repeatability in the regeneration protocol.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

Flow Maldistribution Effects on DPF Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1280
This paper focuses on some of the DPF system design issues where 3-dimensional modeling is necessary. The study is based on an existing 3-dimensional DPF model (axitrap) which is coupled to a commercial CFD code (Star-CD, CD-Adapco). The main focus is the effect of the inlet pipe geometry on soot distribution in the filter during loading and regeneration mode. The results show that due to the self-balancing effect, the resulting soot distribution in the filter under typical loading modes with low flow rates is quite uniform. With the assumption of adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of non-symmetric inlet pipe is also negligible even during regeneration. However, under the realistic assumption of a non-adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of inlet pipe geometry becomes very significant. Especially, for the case of a bent-shaped inlet pipe, the risk of impartial regeneration of the filter increases significantly.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

2009-06-15
2009-01-1895
This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Foam Based Aftertreatment System on a Diesel Passenger Car

2008-04-14
2008-01-0619
An alternative metal foam substrate for exhaust aftertreatment applications has been recently presented and characterized. The present paper focuses on the potential of the metal foam technology as an efficient DOC and CDPF substrates on real-world conditions. The target platform is a mid-size passenger car and the methodology includes both modeling and experiments. The experimental testing starts from small-scale reactor characterization of the basic heat/mass transfer properties and chemical kinetics. The results show that the foam structure exhibits excellent mass-transport properties offering possibilities for precious metal and catalyst volume savings for oxidation catalyst applications. These results are also used to calibrate an advanced 2-dimensional model which is able to predict the transient filtration and reaction phenomena in axial and radial flow systems.
Technical Paper

Thermal Testing of a Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

2009-07-12
2009-01-2573
A Heat Switch has been developed, namely a device able to autonomously regulate its own thermal conductance in function of the equipment dissipation and environmental heat sink conditions. It is based on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology, with a passive bypass valve which diverts the flow to the Compensation Chamber when needed for regulation purposes. The target application is the potential use on a Mars Rover thermal control system. The paper recalls the Heat Switch design, and reports the results of an extensive test campaign on the ground demonstrator. The performance of the device was found extremely satisfying, and often exceeded the system requirements.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Analysis of HCCI Combustion Using a New Multi-Zone Model and CFD Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0021
A new multi-zone model for the simulation of HCCI engine is here presented. The model includes laminar and turbulent diffusion and conduction exchange between the zones and the last improvements on the numerical aspects. Furthermore, a new strategy for the zone discretization is presented, which allows a better description of the near-wall zones. The aim of the work is to provide a fast and reliable model for carrying out chemical analysis with detailed kinetic schemes. A preliminary sensitivity analysis allows to verify that 10 zones are a convenient number for a good compromise between the computational effort and the description accuracy. The multi-zone predictions are then compared with the CFD ones to find the effective turbulence parameters, with the aim to describe the near-wall phenomena, both in a reactive and non-reactive cases.
Journal Article

Full-Cycle CFD Modeling of Air/Fuel Mixing Process in an Optically Accessible GDI Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0024
This paper is focused on the development and application of a CFD methodology that can be applied to predict the fuel-air mixing process in stratified charge, sparkignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the spray evolution together with a liquid film model that properly takes into account its effects on the fuel-air mixing process into account. However, numerical simulation of stratified combustion in SI engines is a very challenging task for CFD modeling, due to the complex interaction of different physical phenomena involving turbulent, reacting and multiphase flows evolving inside a moving geometry. Hence, for a proper assessment of the different sub-models involved a detailed set of experimental optical data is required. To this end, a large experimental database was built by the authors.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Applicability of the Pegasor Particle Sensor to Measure Particle Number, Mass and PM Emissions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0167
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0139
The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of Soot and De-NOx Reaction Phenomena in SCRF Systems

2011-06-09
2011-37-0031
The development of thermally durable zeolite NH3/Urea-SCR formulations coupled with that of high porosity filters substrates has opened the way to integrate PM and NOx control into a single device, namely an SCR-coated Diesel Particulate Filter (SCRF). A few experimental works are already present in the literature regarding SCRF systems, mainly addressing the DeNOx performances of the system (in both presence and absence of soot) under both steady state and transient conditions. The purpose of the present work is to perform a simulation study focused on phenomena which are expected to play key roles in SCRF systems, such as coupling of reaction and diffusion phenomena, soot effect on DeNOx activity, SCR coating effect on soot regeneration and filtration efficiency and competition between soot oxidation and DeNOx processes involving NO2.
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

2010-04-12
2010-01-1181
Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Assessment of Catalyst Ageing Cycles

1995-02-01
950934
In view of recent and future US and european regulations the design optimization of 3-way catalytic converters (3WCC) should also account for catalyst durability. The purpose of this paper is to extend the authors' approach for 3WCC modeling and evaluation in the direction of covering some aspects of ageing behavior. After a brief examination of the commonly accepted ageing mechanisms, a new methodology for the assessment of catalyst durability is formulated. This methodology takes into account the effect of thermal loading, high-temperature oxidation and poisoning of the catalyst. Based on the approach presented, along with the 3WCC and other related models and computer codes already in-use by the authors, a comparative assesment of engine bench ageing cycles may be computationally supported. Correlation of vehicle ageing cycles with engine bench cycles may also be accomplished as illustrated by a case study.
Technical Paper

Trap Protection by Limiting A/F Ratio During Regeneration

1995-02-01
950366
The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new, universally applicable technique to protect the filter from overheating that could overcome the need for trap bypassing; namely, the trap protection by limiting A/F ratio during regeneration. The technique is supported by control of A/F ratio, leading to an indirect control of exhaust oxygen content and consequently trap regeneration rate. Realisation of the above-mentioned, very simple idea, so as to work effectively in the multitude of possible trap failure scenarios occuring during vehicle driving, is shown to be a fairly complicated task. The new method of trap protection, now being at the stage of initial investigations, is expected to lead to a safe and reliable system with wide applicability, without the need to bypass the trap at any circumstances. As such, it will also be attractive for passenger car applications, supported by the recent advances in wide application of electronic fuel control.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Handling Performance of a Vehicle Equipped with an Actively Controlled Differential

2011-05-17
2011-01-1557
Vehicle handling is heavily influenced by the torque distribution to the driving wheels. This work presents a newly developed differential, designed to actively control the driving torque distribution to the wheels. The new device incorporates an electric machine, which can operate either as a motor or generator. A control unit monitors signals from various sources in the vehicle, such as steering angle, yaw acceleration and wheel rotational speed. Then, a control algorithm takes into account the steering angle rate and the vehicle speed in order to determine the suitable difference between output torque values. The handling improvement capabilities are evaluated by simulating in ADAMS/Car the driving behavior of a vehicle equipped with the new differential. The model that has been used to simulate vehicle handling is that of a Formula SAE type racing car.
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