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Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines Operating with Variable Charge Premixing Levels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0027
Premixed combustion modes in compression ignition engines are studied as a promising solution to meet fuel economy and increasingly stringent emissions regulations. Nevertheless, PCCI combustion systems are not yet consolidated enough for practical applications. The high complexity of such combustion systems in terms of both air-fuel charge preparation and combustion process control requires the employment of robust and reliable numerical tools to provide adequate comprehension of the phenomena. Object of this work is the development and validation of suitable models to evaluate the effects of charge premixing levels in diesel combustion. This activity was performed using the Lib-ICE code, which is a set of applications and libraries for IC engine simulations developed using the OpenFOAM® technology.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0324
Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
Technical Paper

CFD Modelling of Gasoline Sprays

2005-09-11
2005-24-086
A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high pressure swirl injectors for GDI engine application has been developed. The primary and secondary atomization mechanism as well as the evaporation process both in standard and superheated conditions are taken into account. The spray modelling after the injection is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, modified to correctly predict the liquid sheet thickness at the breakup length. The effect of different values of the superheat degree on evaporation and impact on the spray distribution and fuel-air mixing is analyzed. Comparisons with experimental data show good agreements under atmospheric conditions and with different superheated degrees, while some discrepancies occur under higher ambient pressures.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modelling Study of Octane Number and Sensitivity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in CFR Engines

2005-09-11
2005-24-077
Aim of this work is to present and discuss the possibility and the limits of two zone models for spark-ignition engines using a detailed kinetic scheme for the characterization of the evolution of the air-fuel mixture, while an equilibrium approach is used for the burnt zone. Simple experimental measurements of knocking tendency of different fuels in ideal reactors, such as rapid compression machines and shock tube reactors, cannot be directly used for the analysis of octane numbers and sensitivity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Thus a careful investigation is very useful, not only of the combustion chamber behavior, including the modelling of the turbulent flame front propagation, but also of the fluid dynamic behavior of the intake and exhaust system, accounting for the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Integrated Breathing Model and Multi-Variable Control Approach for Air Management in Advanced Gasoline Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0658
The evolution of automotive engines calls for the design of electronic control systems optimizing the engine performance in terms of reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the opportunities provided by modern engines have not yet completely exploited, since the adopted control strategies are still largely developed in a very heuristic way and rely on a number of SISO (Single Input Single Output) designs. On the contrary, the strong coupling between the available actuators calls for a MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) control design approach. To this regard, the availability of reliable dynamic engine models plays an important role in the design of engine control and diagnostic systems, allowing for a significant reduction of the development times and costs. This paper presents a control-oriented model of the air-path system of today's gasoline internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

Cordierite Filter Durability with Cerium Fuel Additive: 100,000 km of Revenue Service in Athens

1992-02-01
920363
The first two of a series of traps retrofitted on a pilot fleet of 110 buses of the Athens Bus Corporation were removed for examination after 100,000 km of revenue service. These buses were gradually equipped with the ELBO Trap Oxidiser since the beginning of 1989 and are constantly operated on Cerium based fuel additive. The physical properties and the chemical composition of filters and ash residues were analysed by the filter manufacturers and the fuel additive producer. The results have shown that after two years of operation the filter material remained intact and the ash deposits (consisting mainly of CeO2) exhibit a limited interaction with the cordierite. More than 94% of these deposits are filtered by the monoliths and could be removed to a large extent with the application of conventional methods.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Activity in the Regeneration of the Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1992-02-01
920362
The rare occurrence during city driving of the exhaust temperature levels required for ceramic trap regeneration without catalytic aid, seems to be the main reason of delay in wide application of the trap. The use of catalysts seems to be more or less necessary. Study of the catalytic activity during trap regeneration had not been very effective so far. This holds equally true for the case of catalyzed trap as for the case of catalytic fuel additives. The lack of a satisfactory theory for the explanation and prediction of catalytic activity, directed international research and development towards the quest of the optimum catalyst, which could support a very simple and low-cost regeneration system. The new approach to the explanation of catalytic activity presented in this paper, denies the above assumption.
Technical Paper

Oxygen and Propellant Extraction from Martian Atmosphere: Feasibility Study of a Small Technological Demonstration Plant

2008-06-29
2008-01-1984
The sustainability of Martian outposts development is strongly based on the capability of achieving a high level of autonomy both in terms of operations management and of resources availability. In situ production of consumables is a key point to allow humans to work and live on Mars avoiding or limiting the need for re-supplies of materials from Earth. Required consumables can be produced in situ exploiting the locally available resources, but also by means of green-houses and waste recycle systems. Dedicated robotic missions for in situ demonstration of this type of technologies are a fundamental step of the Martian In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) development roadmap. This paper is focused on the extraction of oxygen and fuels (e.g. methane) from the Martian atmosphere, and presents a feasibility study for a small technological demonstration plant.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost System for Active Gear Shift and Clutch Control

2015-04-14
2015-01-0228
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the design and construction of an innovative active gear-shift and clutch for racecars, applied to a Formula Student car, based on the use of DC gear-motors. Racecars require extremely quick gear-shifts and every system to be as light as possible. The proposed solution is designed to reduce energy consumption, weight and improve gear-shift precision compared to traditionally employed electro-hydraulic solutions, although maintaining state of the art performances.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of DPF at Low Temperatures with the Use of a Cerium Based Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960135
A light duty truck with a naturally aspirated engine was equipped with a DPF (changing the exhaust pipe and eliminating the muffler) and operated on fuel doped with a cerium based additive in various concentrations. Tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer using the European urban cycle, but also under city driving conditions with maximum speeds up to 50 km/h and exhaust gas temperature up to 300°C. Under these conditions, it was observed that filter regeneration was always possible at relatively high particulate accumulation in the filter, while the effect on fuel consumption (as measured over the emission test cycles) was not detectable, compared to baseline data of the vehicle. Change in driving conditions from slow urban to highway with highly loaded trap led to spontaneous trap regeneration at higher temperatures, without effect on fuel consumption. This paper documents the operation of a fully passive DPF system for diesel light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Model and Simulation Approach for Quantifying the Effect of WLTP Introduction on Light Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2015-09-06
2015-24-2391
The paper describes the development of a modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were selected. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary data for the validation of the vehicle simulation models. In order to minimize the sources of uncertainty and the effects of flexibilities, a reference “template model” was developed to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the above mentioned template model. The various components and sub-modules of the models, as well as their input parameters, have been defined with the support of the respective OEMs.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of the ELEVATE Two-stroke Automotive Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0403
ELEVATE (European Low Emission V4 Automotive Two-stroke Engine) was a research project part funded by the European Commission to design and develop a compact and efficient gasoline two-stroke automotive engine. Five partners were involved in the project, IFP (Institut Français Du Pétrole) who were the project leaders, Lotus, Opcon (Autorotor and SEM), Politecnico di Milano and Queen's University Belfast. The general project targets were to achieve Euro 3 emissions compliance without DeNOx catalisation, and a power output of 120 kW at 5000 rev/min with maximum torque of 250 Nm at 2000 rev/min. Specific targets were a 15% reduction in fuel consumption compared to its four-stroke counterpart and a size and weight advantage over the four-stroke diesel with significant reduction in particulate and NOx emissions. This paper describes the design philosophy of the engine as well as the application of the various partner technologies used.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0147
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of Radial Compressors of Turbochargers for Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0187
In this work the 3Dcell method, a quasi3D approach developed by the Internal Combustion Engine Group at Politecnico di Milano, has been extended and applied to the fluid dynamic simulation of turbocharging devices for internal combustion engines, focusing on the compressor side. The 3Dcell is based on a pseudo-staggered leapfrog method applied to the governing equation of a 1D problem arbitrarily oriented in space. The system of equations is solved referring to the relative system in the rotating zone, whereas the absolute reference system has been used elsewhere. The vaneless diffuser has been modelled resorting to the conservation of the angular momentum of the flow stream in the tangential direction, combined with the solution of the momentum equation in the radial direction.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Liquid and Spray Penetration under Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0861
The modeling of fuel sprays under well-characterized conditions relevant for heavy-duty Diesel engine applications, allows for detailed analyses of individual phenomena aimed at improving emission formation and fuel consumption. However, the complexity of a reacting fuel spray under heavy-duty conditions currently prohibits direct simulation. Using a systematic approach, we extrapolate available spray models to the desired conditions without inclusion of chemical reactions. For validation, experimental techniques are utilized to characterize inert sprays of n-dodecane in a high-pressure, high-temperature (900 K) constant volume vessel with full optical access. The liquid fuel spray is studied using high-speed diffused back-illumination for conditions with different densities (22.8 and 40 kg/m3) and injection pressures (150, 80 and 160 MPa), using a 0.205-mm orifice diameter nozzle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Turbulence Modulation Addition in OpenFOAM® Toolkit on High Pressure Fuel Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0820
The OpenFOAM® CFD methodology is nowadays employed for simulation in internal combustion engines and a lot of work has been done for an appropriate description of all complex phenomena. At the moment in the RANS turbulence models available in the OpenFOAM® toolbox the turbulence modulation is not yet included, and the present work analyzes the predictive capabilities of the code in simulating high injection pressure fuel sprays after modeling the influence of the dispersed phase on the turbulence structure. Different experiments were employed for the validation. At first, non-evaporating diesel spray was considered in a constant volume and quiescent vessel. The validation was performed via the available experimental spray evolution in terms of penetrations and spatial/temporal fuel distributions. Then the Sandia combustion chamber was chosen for diesel spray simulation in non-reacting conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of High-Pressure Impinging Sprays for CFD Modeling of GDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0685
Today, Direct-Injection systems are widely used on Spark-Ignition engines in combination with turbo-charging to reduce the fuel-consumption and the knock risks. In particular, the spread of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems is mainly related to the use of new generations of multi-hole, high-pressure injectors whose characteristics are quite different with respect to the hollow-cone, low-pressure injectors adopted in the last decade. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the spray produced by a GDI six-holes injector into a constant volume vessel with optical access. The vessel was filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Different operating conditions were considered for an injection pressure ranging from 3 to 20 MPa. For each operating condition, spray images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone angles.
Technical Paper

Cyber Tyre: A Novel Sensor to Improve Vehicle's Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-0990
Tires will be protagonists in the new European regulations for safety and fuel economy: in 2012 a tire pressure monitoring system will be mandatory for all new vehicles, enabling as natural consequence the development of the so called “intelligent tire”, able to capture all the relevant information of the contact between the road surface and the rubber, a starting point for new functions development to improve safety and reduce fuel consumption of all vehicles. A description of the methodologies that can be used to extract features from the tires, based on the experience of the development of Cyber Tyre, a high performance sensorized tire, is included in this work; comparison with the same information gained thorough ordinary sensors are provided too. The paper also presents some interesting examples of how data, coming from Cyber Tyres, can be exploited to improve the safety margins of a vehicle, preventing the critical operating condition represented by hydroplaning.
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