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Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and Temperature on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1996-02-01
960862
The air entrainment in a transient diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry to provide information on the effect of gas density and temperature. The spray was injected vertically into a confined quiescent atmosphere and the entrained mass flow rate was evaluated by measuring the air velocity component normal to a cylindrical geometric surface surrounding the spray, and extending to about 200 nozzle diameters (50 mm). The experimental results, relative to a density range from 0.84 to 7.02 kg/m3 and a temperature range from 293 to 473 K, indicate that the non dimensional entrainment rate, averaged in time over the main injection period, depends on the distance from the nozzle and both gas density and temperature. A first analysis, based on the available data, allowed to quantify the dependence and provided a correlation with such variables.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of DPF at Low Temperatures with the Use of a Cerium Based Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960135
A light duty truck with a naturally aspirated engine was equipped with a DPF (changing the exhaust pipe and eliminating the muffler) and operated on fuel doped with a cerium based additive in various concentrations. Tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer using the European urban cycle, but also under city driving conditions with maximum speeds up to 50 km/h and exhaust gas temperature up to 300°C. Under these conditions, it was observed that filter regeneration was always possible at relatively high particulate accumulation in the filter, while the effect on fuel consumption (as measured over the emission test cycles) was not detectable, compared to baseline data of the vehicle. Change in driving conditions from slow urban to highway with highly loaded trap led to spontaneous trap regeneration at higher temperatures, without effect on fuel consumption. This paper documents the operation of a fully passive DPF system for diesel light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Tests of Racing Seats and Simulation with Vedyac Code

1998-11-16
983059
Dynamic tests have been performed on carbon fiber racing seats following the FIA regulations. The tests have shown, in rear impact tests, a relatively strong rebound leading to large forward bending of neck, and, in side impact tests, very large lateral displacement of the head, the latter protruding dangerously towards hard portions of the car structure. Stiffening the seat back by steel struts results in reducing strongly both the motion and the acceleration of the head. Simulations of the dynamics of the tests have been done with multi-body models, including the Hybrid III dummy and seat deflection, by means of the program VEDYAC. It has been found that computer simulation can predict very accurately the result of a test, provided the numerical models have been carefully calibrated to match the dummy tolerance bands. Once they have been calibrated and validated with a number of tests, the computer models can be very useful to extend the test results to different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Cordierite Filter Durability with Cerium Fuel Additive: 100,000 km of Revenue Service in Athens

1992-02-01
920363
The first two of a series of traps retrofitted on a pilot fleet of 110 buses of the Athens Bus Corporation were removed for examination after 100,000 km of revenue service. These buses were gradually equipped with the ELBO Trap Oxidiser since the beginning of 1989 and are constantly operated on Cerium based fuel additive. The physical properties and the chemical composition of filters and ash residues were analysed by the filter manufacturers and the fuel additive producer. The results have shown that after two years of operation the filter material remained intact and the ash deposits (consisting mainly of CeO2) exhibit a limited interaction with the cordierite. More than 94% of these deposits are filtered by the monoliths and could be removed to a large extent with the application of conventional methods.
Technical Paper

Transient Behaviour of Turbocharged-Engined Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Traps

1992-02-01
920361
This paper presents a study of the transient behaviour of the turbocharged engine equipped with a diesel particulate trap. The trap is considered to be placed before the turbine, to fully exploit the high regeneration potential of the turbocharged engine. This necessitates some design changes to the exhaust system in front of the turbine, in order to keep a good turbocharger response. The fast temperature response of a light-weight exhaust manifold, partially offsets the effect of the trap thermal inertia. However, the turbocharger lag may deteriorate in some cases, due to the significant modifications produced by the trap dead volume on the pulse turbocharging system operation. This effect varies with trap size and mean pressure drop, and it could necessitate a new turbocharger matching.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Activity in the Regeneration of the Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1992-02-01
920362
The rare occurrence during city driving of the exhaust temperature levels required for ceramic trap regeneration without catalytic aid, seems to be the main reason of delay in wide application of the trap. The use of catalysts seems to be more or less necessary. Study of the catalytic activity during trap regeneration had not been very effective so far. This holds equally true for the case of catalyzed trap as for the case of catalytic fuel additives. The lack of a satisfactory theory for the explanation and prediction of catalytic activity, directed international research and development towards the quest of the optimum catalyst, which could support a very simple and low-cost regeneration system. The new approach to the explanation of catalytic activity presented in this paper, denies the above assumption.
Technical Paper

Considerations in Designing a Recovery Steam Generator for Incineration Plants

1992-08-03
929266
The design of recovery steam generators for incineration plants encounters certain specific problems, related to the nature of the exhausted gases, which, if not properly faced, can strongly condition the conduction of the whole system. Two problems, namely, demand for particular attention: the corrosion at high temperature and the formation of organochlorine compounds, in presence of ashes and/or deposits for definite temperature intervals. These phenomena can be controlled and minimized, whenever possible, by limiting to the greatest extent the regions where the temperatures of the metallic walls and of the ashes and/or deposits are within the critical interval.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Solar Prototype for Shell-Eco Marathon Race

2017-03-28
2017-01-1260
Apollo is the name of a solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) that has been conceived and employed for the Shell Eco-marathon® Europe competition (SEM). The paper introduces the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the indoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three-wheeler with a single driving and steering wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accommodation of the driver inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum. The camber of front wheels was set to 4 deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the Ride Comfort of Alfa Romeo Cars since 1955 until 2005

2017-03-28
2017-01-1484
The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
Technical Paper

Suspension Systems: Some New Analytical Formulas for Describing the Dynamic Behavior

2018-04-03
2018-01-0554
The paper presents some new and unreferenced analytical formulae describing the dynamic behaviour of the suspension system of road or off-road vehicles. The quarter car model (2 degrees of freedom) is considered, the suspension can be either passive or active. Passive suspensions can be simplified as the spring-damper combination or the spring-damper combination with an additional in series spring (representing, e.g., the rubber bushing at the top of a McPherson strut or the rubber bushing at the end joints of the damper). The mathematical system is linear and the excitation is given by a random stationary and ergodic process. The standard deviations in analytical form are given referring to, respectively, the vehicle body acceleration, the relative displacement between sprung and unsprung mass, and the force at the ground. The so called invariant points of the frequency response functions are derived for both active and passive suspension.
Technical Paper

Description of a Novel Concentric Rotary Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0365
The present work presents the concept of a new rotary engine, and provides first investigations for its implementation in the energy sector. The main focus of this work is to provide a theoretical description of the engine and its differences from the state-of-the-art technologies. Its innovative principle consists of concentric operation, with two pistons of different rotation radius and the addition of a third intermediate chamber between the compression and combustion chamber. A description of the engine’s physical model is provided, followed by an analysis of the selected specific geometrical features. Additionally, a thermodynamic analysis clarifies the operational advantage compared to the existing cycles and, finally, a numerical investigation on the engine’s bulk performance is provided to quantify the anticipated results of the theoretical analysis.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions

2018-05-30
2018-37-0031
With the adoption of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations for testing and monitoring the vehicle pollutant emissions, as well as CO2 and fuel consumption, the gap between real world and type approval performances is expected to decrease to a large extent. With respect to CO2, however, WLTP is not expected to fully eliminate the reported 40% discrepancy between real world and type approval values. This is mainly attributed to the fact that laboratory tests take place under average controlled conditions that do not fully replicate the environmental and traffic conditions experienced over daily driving across Europe. In addition, any uncertainties of a pre-defined test protocol and the vehicle operation can be optimized to lower the CO2 emissions of the type approval test. Such issues can be minimized in principle with the adoption of a real-world test for fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure Wave Reflection from Open-Ends in I.C.E. Duct Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1051
In the most elementary treatment of plane-wave reflection at the open end of a duct system, it is often assumed that the ends are pressure nodes. This implies that pressure is assumed as a constant at the open end termination and that steady flow boundary condition is supposed as instantaneously established. While this simplifying assumption seems reasonable, it does not consider any radiation of acoustic energy from the duct into the surrounding free space; hence, an error in the estimation of the effects of the flow on the acoustical response of an open-end duct occurs. If radiation is accounted, a complicated three-dimensional wave pattern near the duct end is established, which tends to readjust the exit pressure to its steady-flow level. This adjustment process is continually modified by further incident waves, so that the effective instantaneous boundary conditions which determine the reflected waves depend on the flow history.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Cyber Tyre: A Novel Sensor to Improve Vehicle's Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-0990
Tires will be protagonists in the new European regulations for safety and fuel economy: in 2012 a tire pressure monitoring system will be mandatory for all new vehicles, enabling as natural consequence the development of the so called “intelligent tire”, able to capture all the relevant information of the contact between the road surface and the rubber, a starting point for new functions development to improve safety and reduce fuel consumption of all vehicles. A description of the methodologies that can be used to extract features from the tires, based on the experience of the development of Cyber Tyre, a high performance sensorized tire, is included in this work; comparison with the same information gained thorough ordinary sensors are provided too. The paper also presents some interesting examples of how data, coming from Cyber Tyres, can be exploited to improve the safety margins of a vehicle, preventing the critical operating condition represented by hydroplaning.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of ABS Performance through On-Board Estimation of the Tires' Response by Means of Smart Tires

2011-04-12
2011-01-0991
Active controls for braking dynamics are widely investigated in literature [1]-[8] as one of the way to improve vehicle safety and avoid collisions. Active systems commonly mounted on passenger cars like ABS/EBD, have achieved a high level of robustness towards possible changes in the tires' characteristics due to multiple causes such as: under-inflation, wear and also replacement of tires with new ones different from the first equipment series. Although these electronic control systems have been designed to be robust and no case-sensitive to such variations in tire conditions, a further improvement of their performance could be achieved by means of a continuous adaptive control.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
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