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Technical Paper

Modification of the USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

2009-07-12
2009-01-2416
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration.
Technical Paper

Advanced Design Heat Pump/Radiator for EVA Suits

2009-07-12
2009-01-2406
Absorption cooling using a lithium chloride/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member, This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment, Data from tests of the system's modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.
Technical Paper

First Human Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

2009-07-12
2009-01-2456
A system of amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and is baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In two previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of the technology, which was performed in a representative environment with simulated human metabolic loads. The next step in developmental testing at JSC was to use real human loads in the spring of 2008.
Technical Paper

Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems — How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts

2009-07-12
2009-01-2527
Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine “housekeeping” for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work — but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program.
Journal Article

HMMWV Axle Testing Methodology to Determine Efficiency Improvements with Superfinished Hypoids

2013-04-08
2013-01-0605
A dynamometer test methodology was developed for evaluation of HMMWV axle efficiency with hypoid gearsets, comparing those having various degrees of superfinish versus new production axles as well as used axles removed at depot maintenance. To ensure real-world applicability, a HMMWV variant vehicle model was created and simulated over a peacetime vehicle duty cycle, which was developed to represent a mission scenario. In addition, tractive effort calculations were then used to determine the maximum input torques. The drive cycle developed above was modified into two different profiles having varying degrees of torque variability to determine if the degree of variability would have a significant influence on efficiency in the transient dynamometer tests. Additionally, steady state efficiency performance is measured at four input pinion speeds from 700-2500 rpm, five input torques from 50 - 400 N⋅m, and two sump temperatures, 80°C and 110°C.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Helical Intake Ports

1995-02-01
950818
The design of helical Intake ports for swirl generation is a process that has been developed over a number of years through primarily empirical methods. A number of design rules have been established that enable designers to develop ports that approach the state-of-the-art for maximum swirl generation with minimum pressure loss. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been introduced that permit geometry and features to be accurately defined by mathematical surface descriptions, and to be parameterized such that derived geometry is updated automatically along with parent features. The author has developed a parametric design approach for helical ports that incorporates the lessons learned from experience into a systematic design procedure. This procedure takes advantage of the current CAD capabilities to expedite the design process and improve the result.
Technical Paper

Advanced Nondestructive Testing Methods for Bearing Inspection

1972-02-01
720172
The principles of the magnetic-perturbation method of flaw detection and the Barkhausen noise residual stress measurement method are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that they provide very powerful tools for assuring improved ball bearing performance. The methods are applied for the evaluation of ball bearing races. Typical experimental results are presented along with metallurgical sectioning correlation.
Technical Paper

Modified Sequence V-D Test with Two Engines Using Alcohol Fuels

1983-02-01
830239
Modifying the standard Sequence V-D test for alcohol fuels requires material changes in the fuel handling system addition of a fine mesh fuel filter and the provision for easy fuel drainage. Besides rejetting the carburetors the initial ring gaps of the 2.3L engine are reduced to maintain the blow by level of the standard test. Large oil consumption necessitates a modified oil leveling procedure. Precise measurements of the rings bores and valve-train components are essential to the evaluation of oil performance. Wear of a 2.3L engine using alcohols is larger than using gasoline. Special oils can be formulated to mitigate the wear problem. To test the 1.6L engine with the Sequence V-D procedure requires extensive modification to the production carburetor and some plumbing changes of the standard test stand. Load and initial oil charge are scaled to reflect the smaller engine requirements. Wear of the 1.6L engine is less severe than the 2.3L.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on In-Cylinder Air/Fuel Ratio Detection Using a Production Ion Sensing Device

2004-03-08
2004-01-0515
In-cylinder ion sensing through sparkplug electrodes can be used to determine in-cylinder A/F ratio by using a modified production coil-on-plug ignition system having ion sensing capability. The in-cylinder ionization can be characterized by the height of the peak, location of the peak from ignition command and area under the ionization signal curve. The effects of A/F ratio on the in-cylinder ionization can be isolated from other affecting factors by conducting tests on a constant volume combustion device in which the initial pressure and temperature can be well controlled. This results in a parabolic correlation of the ionization characteristics with the mixture equivalence ratio. Additionally the ionization characteristics show strong dependence on engine load and speed. Equivalence ratio characteristics during engine cranking and warm up are investigated, and a method for on-line calibration of ionization detection is discussed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

2004-03-08
2004-01-0593
The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Human and Robotic Enabling Performance System Development and Testing

2005-07-11
2005-01-2969
With a renewed focus on manned exploration, NASA is beginning to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead. Future manned missions will require a symbiosis of human and robotic infrastructure. As a step towards understanding the roles of humans and robots in future planetary exploration, NASA headquarters funded ILC Dover and the University of Maryland to perform research in the area of human and robotic interfaces. The research focused on development and testing of communication components, robotic command and control interfaces, electronic displays, EVA navigation software and hardware, and EVA lighting. The funded research was a 12-month effort culminating in a field test with NASA personnel.
Technical Paper

Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

2007-07-09
2007-01-3255
As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

IVA/EVA Life Support Umbilical System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3228
For NASA's Constellation Program, an Intravehicular Activity (IVA) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Life Support Umbilical System (LSUS) will be required to provide environmental protection to the suited crew during Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) cabin contamination or depressurization and contingency EVAs. The LSUS will provide the crewmember with ventilation, cooling, power, communication, and data, and will also serve as a crew safety restraint during contingency EVAs. The LSUS will interface with the Vehicle Interface Assembly (VIA) in the CEV and the Suit Connector on the suit. This paper describes the effort performed to develop concept designs for IVA and EVA umbilicals, universal multiple connectors, handling aids and stowage systems, and VIAs that meet NASA's mission needs while adhering to the important guiding principles of simplicity, reliability, and operability.
Technical Paper

ISRU Production of Life Support Consumables for a Lunar Base

2007-07-09
2007-01-3106
Similar to finding a home on Earth, location is important when selecting where to set up an exploration outpost. Essential considerations for comparing potential lunar outpost locations include: (1) areas nearby that would be useful for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) oxygen extraction from regolith for crew breathing oxygen as well as other potential uses; (2) proximity to a suitable landing site; (3) availability of sunlight; (4) capability for line-of-sight communications with Earth; (5) proximity to permanently-shadowed areas for potential in-situ water ice; and (6) scientific interest. The Mons Malapert1 (Malapert Mountain) area (85.5°S, 0°E) has been compared to these criteria, and appears to be a suitable location for a lunar outpost.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Thermal Control Coatings

2007-07-09
2007-01-3020
Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Application of Optical Spark Plug Probe and Head Gasket Ionization Probe to a Production Engine

1993-03-01
930464
The optical spark plug probe and ionization head gasket probe developed at Sandia Laboratories were applied to one cylinder of a production multicylinder automotive gasoline engine. The purpose of this application is to eventually study combustion phenomena leading to high emissions under cold start and cold idle conditions. As a first step in studying cold start combustion and emissions issues, diagnostic instrumentation was simultaneously applied to a production engine under steady state idle, road load and an intermediate load-speed condition. The preliminary application of such instrumentation is the subject of the present paper. The spark plug probe was redesigned for ease of use in production engines and to provide a more robust design. The two probes were geometrically oriented to obtain radial line-up between the optical windows and ionization probes. Data were taken simultaneously with both probes at the three load-speed conditions mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Mobile Fuel Filtration/Additive Unit

1993-03-01
930015
Due to the serious need of the U.S. Army for a simple and rapid mobile fuel filtration system, a Filtration/Additive Unit (FAU) has been designed and fabricated. The primary use of the FAU is to aid in the cleanup of fuel in Army ground vehicles and equipment fuel cells and storage tanks. The FAU provides a simple and rapid means to remove gross quantities of particulate and water. The unit consists of a trailer-mounted filtration and additive system capable of dispensing three separate additives into the fuel. The FAU was designed to rapidly clean and additive-treat diesel or aviation-type fuels in volumes between 400 and 4500 liters. However, the FAU is capable of processing larger quantities, such as in storage tanks. The designed pump rate is 225 liters per minute (minimum) using diesel fuel at its maximum viscosity (4.1 cSt at 40°C).
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

1992-02-01
920847
This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

1993-03-01
930383
Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.
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