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Technical Paper

Retrofitting Urban Buses to Reduce PM and NO2

2004-06-08
2004-01-1939
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

2004-01-16
2004-28-0013
For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
Technical Paper

Results From a ¼ Million km, Heavy-Duty Truck Trail, Using FBC Regenerated DPFs

2004-03-08
2004-01-0074
Diesel particulate filters (DPF), in conjunction with fuel borne catalysts (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, are now an accepted technology for passenger car application. Retrofitting of such systems has demonstrated the possibility of applying this technology to heavy-duty vehicles. To demonstrate the efficacy of DPF/FBC systems and to assess their affect on engine durability and economy, five heavy-duty trucks were fitted with DPF/FBC systems. After the completion of over ¼ million kms four trucks underwent a full engine strip-down and rating. This paper briefly reviews the installation of the systems and their effect on the regulated emissions, present details of the mileage accumulation and of the engine strip-downs. The conclusions drawn are that after a ¼ million km of use with the DPF/FBC systems the trucks had not suffered any abnormal deterioration and in fact there was some indication of reduced wear on the engine.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

2005-05-11
2005-01-2146
Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Metal Emissions, NO2 and HC Reduction from a Base Metal Catalysed DPF/FBC System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0420
Due to concerns over NO2 emissions from platinum catalysts a base metal catalysed diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed and used in combination with fuel borne catalysts (FBC). Results are presented showing reductions in HC, NOX, NO2, and PAH emissions along with an assessment of the emissions of metals used in the FBC and the catalysed DPF. This data is used to show the likely reduction in overall iron and other metal emissions as a result of using the catalysed DPF/FBC system. A similar system has also been assessed for durability for over 2000 hours when fitted to a bus in regular service in Switzerland.
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