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Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

2007-04-16
2007-01-1768
Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

2010-09-28
2010-32-0037
The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

2004-03-08
2004-01-0994
The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
Technical Paper

Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder (opoc™) 450 hp Engine: Performance Development by CAE Simulations and Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0277
The new opoc™ diesel engine concept was presented at the SAE 2005 World Congress [1]. Exceptional power density of >1hp/lb and >40% efficiency have been predicted for the 2-stroke opoc™ diesel engine concept. Intensive CAE simulations have been performed during the concept and design phase in order to define the baseline scavenging and combustion parameters, such as port timing, turbocharger configuration and fuel injection nozzle design. Under a DARPA contract, first prototype engines have been built and have undergone a validation testing program. The main goal of the first testing phase was to demonstrate the power output capability of the new engine concept. In close relationship and interaction of testing and CAE simulation, the uniflow scavenging process and parameters of the special diesel direct side injection have been optimized. This paper discusses the latest results of the opoc engine development.
Technical Paper

Modern Gear Train Simulation Process for the Virtual Engine and Transmission Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-0585
Current simulation tools for the investigation of the dynamic system response as well as for the component stresses on the basis of multi-body and finite-element techniques are integral part of today's powertrain development efforts. These tools are typical used for the analysis and optimization of shafts, clutches, chain/belt drives, bearings, levers, brackets, housings and many other components. An exception is made by gears which today are still frequently investigated by the help of semi-empirical methods based on DIN, ISO, AGMA and the specific knowledge base of well experienced developers. The main difficulty is that the gears are rolling off via large contact surfaces with complex nonlinear mechanical contact properties. Within the scope of research work FEV developed a new method for the analysis and optimization of gear drives based on comercial multi-body and finite-element software platforms.
Technical Paper

HiL-based ECU-Calibration of SI Engine with Advanced Camshaft Variability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0613
A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1796
In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Optimize Catalyst Flow Uniformity

2000-03-06
2000-01-0865
A uniform flow distribution at converter inlet is one of the fundamental requirements to meet high catalytic efficiency. Commonly used tools for optimization of the inlet flow distribution are flow measurements as well as CFD analysis. This paper puts emphasis on the experimental procedures and results. The interaction of flow measurements and CFD is outlined. The exhaust gas flow is transient, compressible and hot, making in-situ flow measurements very complex. On the other hand, to utilize the advantages of flow testing at steady-state and cold conditions the significance of these results has to be verified first. CFD analysis under different boundary conditions prove that - in a first approach - the flow situation can be regarded as a sequence of successive, steady-state situations. Using the Reynolds analogy a formula for the steady-state, cold test mass flow is derived, taking into account the cylinder displacement and the rated speed.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality and Engine Performance Development Utilizing Air-to-Air Simulation and Interior Noise Synthesis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1652
The sound quality and performance of an automotive engine are both significantly influenced by the “air-to-air” system, i.e., the intake system, the exhaust system, and the engine gas dynamics. Only a full systems approach can result in an optimized air-to-air system, which fulfills engine performance requirements, overall sound pressure level targets for airborne vehicle noise, as well as sound quality demands. This paper describes an approach, which considers the intake system, engine, and exhaust system within one CAE model that can be utilized for engine performance calculations as well as acoustic simulations. Examples comparing simulated and measured sound are discussed. Finally, the simulated sound (e.g., at the tailpipe of the exhaust system) is combined with an interior noise simulation technique to evaluate its influence inside the vehicle's interior.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a Camless Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0376
Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell System Air Management Utilizing HIL Tools

2002-03-04
2002-01-0409
In this paper, boosting strategies are investigated for part load operation of typical fuel-cell-systems. The optimal strategy can mainly be obtained by simulation. The boosting strategy is one of the most essential parameters for design and operation of a fuel-cell-system. High pressure ratios enable high power densities, low size and weight. Simultaneously, the demands in humidification and water recovery for today's systems are reduced. But power consumption and design effort of the system increases strongly with the pressure level. Therefore, the main focus must be on the system efficiencies at part load. In addition, certain boundary conditions like the inlet temperature of the fuel-cell stack must be maintained. With high pressure levels the humidification of the intake air before, within or after the compressor is not sufficient to dissipate enough heat. Vaporization during the compression process shows efficiency advantages while the needs in heat dissipation decreases.
Technical Paper

Applying Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) with Special Emphasis on Pollutant Formation to Simulate a DI Diesel Engine with Roof-Shaped Combustion Chamber and Tumble Charge Motion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0167
Combustion and pollutant formation in a new recently introduced Common-Rail DI Diesel engine concept with roof-shaped combustion chamber and tumble charge motion are numerically investigated using the Representative Interactive Flamelet concept (RIF). A reference case with a cup shaped piston bowl for full load operating conditions is considered in detail. In addition to the reference case, three more cases are investigated with a variation of start of injection (SOI). A surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. The underlying complete reaction mechanism comprises 506 elementary reactions and 118 chemical species. Special emphasis is put on pollutant formation, in particular on the formation of NOx, where a new technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation within the flamelet framework is applied.
Technical Paper

Optimized Layout of Gasoline Engines for Hybrid Powertrains

2008-01-09
2008-28-0024
Due to the complex powertrain layout in hybrid vehicles, different configurations concerning internal combustion engine, electric motor and transmission can be combined - as is demonstrated by currently produced hybrid vehicles ([1], [2]). At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University a combination of simulation, Design of Experiments (DoE) and numerical optimization methods was used to optimize the combustion engine, the powertrain configuration and the operation strategy in hybrid powertrains. A parametric description allows a variation of the main hybrid parameters. Parallel as well as power-split hybrid powertrain configurations were optimized with regard to minimum fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Besides the definition of the optimum configuration for engine, powertrain and operation strategy this approach offers the possibility to predict the fuel consumption for any modifications of the hybrid powertrains.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Modeling Approaches for NOx Formation in a Common-Rail DI Diesel Engine within the Framework of Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0971
Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) have proven successful in predicting Diesel engine combustion. The RIF concept is based on the assumption that chemistry is fast compared to the smallest turbulent time scales, associated with the turnover time of a Kolmogorov eddy. The assumption of fast chemistry may become questionable with respect to the prediction of pollutant formation; the formation of NOx, for example, is a rather slow process. For this reason, three different approaches to account for NOx emissions within the flamelet approach are presented and discussed in this study. This includes taking the pollutant mass fractions directly from the flamelet equations, a technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation as well as the extended Zeldovich mechanism. Combustion and pollutant emissions in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine are numerically investigated using the RIF concept. Special emphasis is put on NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0653
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Technical Paper

A New TEHD Approach for Sophisticated Simulation of Journal Bearings

2001-10-01
2001-01-3367
The new Thermo-Elasto-Hydro-Dynamic (TEHD) code developed by FEV, is designed to improve the predictability of journal bearing designs and thereby increase the reliability of safety factors in the development of highly loaded internal combustion engines. Advanced analysis tools are evaluated by their performance as well as by their ease of use. High performance means on the one hand: taking into account all the important characteristics, like bearing elasticity or cavitation effects, to mention only some major parameters for modern journal bearing analysis. On the other hand: an economic run-time behavior must be a key feature concerning usability of the TEHD-demands for daily development praxis. Ease of use means also, that the TEHD model can easily be used as a plug-in routine of an already existing software package that is well known to the development departments.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Endurance and Thermo Cycle Testing for Highly Loaded HSDI Diesel Cylinder Heads

2001-10-01
2001-01-3226
Due to today's demands to reduce cost and product time to market, engineering procedures are increasingly using more sophisticated simulation techniques, instead of validation testing. Early implementation of CAE methods yield higher quality products, even with first prototypes, reducing the design iterations required to reach production quality. The strategy is to conduct specific evaluations of a realistic representation of the product while focusing on the key boundary conditions necessary to extract fatigue effects. Discussed in this paper are adequate CAE methods for early identification, evaluation and removal of conceptual and local structural weaknesses. Possible solutions gained from a computational optimization process are discussed for highly loaded HSDI diesel cylinder heads as a representative example.
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