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Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

2000-06-12
2000-05-0058
The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

2001-10-01
2001-01-3192
Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Variable Valve Actuation and Direct Injection

2002-03-04
2002-01-0706
The main goal in the development of new automobile SI engines is to significantly reduce fuel consumption. To this end both, variable valve actuation and direct gasoline injection, are being pursued as new engine concepts. Both approaches appear to offer approximately the same potential to reduce fuel consumption. The development so far is creating the impression of two competing technical concepts with no obvious way to combine them [1]. The two engine concepts, however, can be combined, although it is often objected that their combination would only yield marginal additional potential. That is true to the extent that the advantages of dethrottling offered by both of the concepts can only be counted once in terms of overall potential. But there is a number of additional effects to be taken into account. This Paper represents an analysis of the individual potential of the two approaches as well as an estimation of their combined potential.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

2003-06-23
2003-01-2264
Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Future Potential and Development Methods for High Output Turbocharged Direct Injected Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0046
With rising gasoline prices in the US the need for increasingly fuel efficient powertrain concepts has never been more critical. Evaluation of the market on the other hand shows that the vehicle-buying consumer is unwilling to compromise engine power output for this needed fuel efficiency. Boosted, direct-injected gasoline engines with high specific output and low end torque seem to be the most logical path to satisfying both good part load fuel economy and generous power and torque characteristics. Turbo lag and subsequent lack of torque during transient acceleration (with low initial engine speeds) are characteristics of current turbocharged gasoline engines. These phenomena have prevented successful penetration of these boosted powertrains into the marketplace. Larger displacement, naturally aspirated gasoline engines have been the preferred choice.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0653
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Technical Paper

State Machine-Based Control Strategy for a Gasoline Fueled PEMFC APU System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1475
A fuel cell based Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) represents a rather complex technical system consisting of different subsystems, components and low-level controllers. Particularly in the case of gasoline-fueled systems, a sophisticated supervisory control is needed to manage the sequential control and to achieve fault tolerant and fail-safe operation. In this paper, a state machine-based APU control concept is presented, offering a transparent and modular structure. In addition to a superior control system (top level supervisor) that manages the overall strategies and the interaction of all subsystems, each subsystem is equipped with its own subsystem control (second level supervisor). This controller is responsible for all subsystem specific issues. The APU control concept was implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® and applied on a rapid prototyping controller unit.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Boost Pressure and EGR Rate Control Development for HD Truck Engines with VGT

2002-03-04
2002-01-0964
Future HD Diesel engine technology is facing a combination of both extremely low exhaust emission standards (US 2002/2004, EURO IV and later US 2007, EURO V) and new engine test procedures such as the European Transient Cycle (ETC) in Europe and the Not-to-Exceed Area (NTE) in the US). Customers furthermore require increased engine performance, improved efficiency, and long-term durability. In order to achieve all targets simultaneously, future HD Diesel engines must have improved fuel injection and combustion systems and utilize suitable technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), variable geometry turbine turbocharger systems (VGT) and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Future systems require precision controlled EGR in combination with a VGT-turbocharger during transient operation. This will require new strategies and calibration for the Electronic Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Low Emission and Fuel Consumption Natural Gas Engines with High Power Density for Stationary and Heavy-Duty Application

1999-08-17
1999-01-2896
Today, natural gas engines for stationary and vehicular applications are not only faced with stringent emission legislation, but also with increasing requirements for power density and efficient fuel consumption. For vehicular use, downsizing is an advantageous approach to lowering on-road fuel consumption and making gas engines more competitive with their diesel counterparts. In SI-engines, the power density at a given compression ratio is limited by knocking, or NOx emissions. A decrease in compression ratio, lowering both NOx emissions and the risk of knocking combustion, increases fuel consumption. An increase in air-fuel-ratio, required to avoid knocking at higher thermal loading, increases boost pressure, HC and CO emissions, and mechanical loading and causes the danger of misfiring. As a result, the performance of the latest production gas engines for vehicles remains at a BMEP of 18…20 bar with a NOx emission level of 2…5 g/kWh.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1991
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of Downsized Gasoline DI Engines with 2 and 3 Cylinders

2011-09-11
2011-24-0138
Turbocharged DISI engines with four cylinders have established in the market and provide a performance comparable to larger six-cylinder engines in the smaller compartment of a four-cylinder engine. In the Japanese market, also turbo gasoline engines with 500 - 660 cm₃ displacement have a long tradition in Kei-Cars. However, those engines show a lower specific performance as would be required for propelling typical small or compact vehicles in Europe. Recently, two-cylinder turbo engines have come to market, which are found attractive with respect to sound, package, and also enable low vehicle fuel consumption in NEDC test. The paper presents a turbocharger layout study on 2- and 3-cylinder engines. It discusses the influence of cylinder displacement volume on the sizing of turbines and compressors, and how specific flow phenomena in the turbine can be captured in the simulation model.
Technical Paper

Start-Up Behavior of Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0420
This paper focuses on start-up technology for fuel processing systems with special emphasis on gasoline fueled burners. Initially two different fuel processing systems, an autothermal reformer with preferential oxidation and a steam reformer with membrane, are introduced and their possible starting strategies are discussed. Energy consumption for preheating up to light-off temperature and the start-up time is estimated. Subsequently electrical preheating is compared with start-up burners and the different types of heat generation are rated with respect to the requirements on start-up systems. Preheating power for fuel cell propulsion systems necessarily reaches up to the magnitude of the electrical fuel cell power output. A gasoline fueled burner with thermal combustion has been build-up, which covers the required preheating power.
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