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Technical Paper

Active Noise Control for the 4.0 TFSI with Cylinder on Demand Technology in Audi's S-Series

To significantly increase fuel efficiency while keeping power and performance of its signature S models, AUDI developed a new 4.0 TFSI engine with Cylinder on Demand technology and introduced it with its new S6, S7 and S8 models. To manage upcoming NVH issues due to this new technology and keep the intended sporty V8 note of the engine under all operating conditions, a broad range of new and advanced technologies was introduced with these vehicles. This paper focusses on the Active Noise Control system and its development. It describes the ANC system from a control theory perspective in addition to the acoustical perspective. Special features of the system include the availability of multiple tunings (4/8 cylinder mode) to support the specific overall sound character and the fast switching process as switching between different cylinder configurations might be as fast as 300 ms. In addition, the system also includes specific features that allow an advanced audio system diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Multicore vs Safety

It is the beginning of a new age: multicore technology from the PC desktop market is now also hitting the automotive domain after several years of maturation. New microcontrollers with two or more main processing cores have been announced to provide the next step change in available computing power while keeping costs and power consumption at a reasonable level. These new multicore devices should not be confused with the specialized safety microcontrollers using two redundant cores to detect possible hardware failures which are already available. Nor should they be confused with the heterogeneous multicore solutions employing an additional support core to offload a single main processing core from real-time tasks (e.g. handling peripherals).
Technical Paper

Influence Parameters on Headlamp Performance in Rating Systems and Reality

Headlamp performance has changed in the last 20 years significantly. Sealed beam lamps were replaced by VHAD, VOR and VOL types, but still the optical input in terms of tungsten filament based luminous flux remained more stable. With Xenon discharge lamps and now LED the performance of a headlamp may vary strongly and thus the optical performance. Various rating systems have been developed to assess the quality of lamps and light distribution, some based on laboratory based data, some based on static or dynamic street test drives with online measurements and assessments. Basic interest is to understand the performance of the light for a real driver. This article will discuss the influence parameters on achieving a repeatable and precise rating as well as the outer influence that creates glare and varying seeing distance. Mostly mechanical headlamp and car conditioning will influence the result as well as human factors like aiming precision and aiming tolerances.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection by Evaluating Crankshaft Speed - A Means to Comply with OBDII

An effective method for detecting misfire using crank speed fluctuations has been developed for on-board use in production vehicles. Engine misfire is represented in this method by Engine Roughness identified by crankshaft rotational acceleration. Engine Roughness is calculated for each combustion event and is compared with a speed and load dependent threshold permitting the determination of single or continuous misfire. Correctional functions are applied to avoid erroneous detection during highly transient engine operation. In the wide range of engine speed and load at common driving conditions the detection of single and continuous misfire events is possible without requiring additional sensors or electronic hardware in most cases. This sophisticated method as well as other OBDII functions has already been implemented into 8 bit and 16 bit ECU's.
Technical Paper

Model-Predictive Energy Management for the Integration of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles into Building Energy Systems

In current research projects such as "Vehicle to Grid" (V2G), "Vehicle to Building" (V2B) or "Vehicle to Home" (V2H), plug-in vehicles are integrated into stationary energy systems. V2B or V2H therefore stands for intelligent networking between vehicles and buildings. However, in these projects the objective is mostly from a pure electric point of view, to smooth the load profile on a household level by optimized charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In the present paper a small energy system of this kind, consisting of a building and a vehicle, is investigated from a holistic point of view. Thermal as well as electrical system components are taken into account and there is a focus on reduction of overall energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. A predictive energy management is presented that coordinates the integration of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the energy systems of a building. System operation is optimized in terms of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Software Development Process and Software-Components for X-by-Wire Systems

The term X-by-Wire is commonly used in the automotive industry to describe the notion of replacing current mechanical or hydraulic chassis and powertrain systems with pure electro-mechanical systems. The paper describes the current trends and the architecture of future chassis electronics systems. The first part of the paper covers the systems architecture of x-by-wire electronics systems. We describe the network and the software architecture in more detail. The paper also explains some of the software components, in particular the operating system and the communication layer. The second part of the paper gives a description of the current state of the development process for software intended for safety-relevant systems. A possible tool chain for this development process, current possibilities as well as limitations and challenges are described.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

Time-Triggered Architecture Based on FlexRay: Roadmap from High-Speed Data Networking to Safety-Relevant Automotive Applications

Future applications in the automotive domain such as distributed control functions need a highly dependable communication system. The current FlexRay standard already provides high transmission speeds and addresses deterministic data communication. This paper shows how to enhance the safety properties for handling a new set of applications and speeding up the communication even more. The concept of Layered FlexRay is based on the FlexRay protocol and addresses the requirements of safety-relevant applications in a distributed communication network. An implementation of this approach is depicted with a Safety Core hardware chip. It is designed to handle the communication between the FlexRay system beneath and the application on the host CPU above, providing highly efficient data management and execution of safety functions which otherwise would have to be executed in software on the host CPU.
Technical Paper

Collaborative Product Creation Driving the MOST Cooperation

The following document offers insight into the work of the MOST Cooperation. Now that MOST is on the road, a short overview of five years of successful collaborative work of the partners involved and the results achieved will be given. Emphasis is put on the importance of a shared vision in combination with shared values as a prerequisite for targeted collaborative work. It is also about additional key success factors that led to the success of the MOST Cooperation. Your attention will be directed to the way the MOST Cooperation sets and achieves its goals. And you will learn about how the organization was set-up to support a fast progression towards the common goal. The document concludes with examples of recent work as well as an outlook on future work.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Journal Article

Practical Use of AUTOSAR in Safety Critical Automotive Systems

With the increased adoption of AUTOSAR operating systems across the different automotive system domains a notable exception has been that of the safety critical systems. This domain has strict requirements on precise requirements capturing, proven design flow, robust implementation, exhaustive testing, detailed documentation and traceability, and project management processes. These requirements are normally prohibitive to adopt for commercial ‘one size fits all’ solutions due to the huge expense and resources required to meet such a strict regime. So under these constraints AUTOSAR is far from a perfect fit for safety systems. Nonetheless, the attractive features of reuse and portability still make AUTOSAR based systems highly desirable.
Journal Article

Optimization of Lateral Vehicle Dynamics by Targeted Dimensioning of the Rim Width

The aim of this investigation is the improvement of the lateral vehicle dynamics by optimizing the rim width. For that purpose, the rim width is considered as a development tool and configured with regard to specified targets. Using a specifically developed method of simulation, the influence of the rim width is analysed within different levels - starting at the component level “tyre” and going up to the level of the whole vehicle. With the help of substantial simulations using a nonlinear two-track model, the dimensioning of the rim width is brought to an optimum. Based on both, tyre and vehicle measurements, the theoretical studies can be proved in practice. As a result, the rim width has a strong influence on the behaviour of the tyre as well as on the overall vehicle performance, which emphasises its importance as a potential development tool within the development of a chassis.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Concepts Based on Customer-Relevant Characteristics

Electric vehicles differ from conventionally powered vehicles in terms of many characteristics that are directly relevant to the customer. The most evident ones are the total driving range, which is limited by the battery capacity, and the different acceleration behavior, which is directly influenced by the electric motor's torque characteristics. Furthermore, there are many other vehicle characteristics, such as lateral dynamics, that are also strongly influenced by electrification. For all customer-relevant vehicle characteristics, it is important to know the necessary and optimal fulfillments in order to plan and evaluate new electrified vehicle concepts. Correlation functions can be used to convert values for technical characteristics to normalized customer satisfaction fulfillments. To evaluate the quality of a vehicle concept during the development process, a parametric cost function is defined.
Technical Paper

Software Architecture Methods and Mechanisms for Timing Error and Failure Detection According to ISO 26262: Deadline vs. Execution Time Monitoring

More electronic vehicle functions lead to an exponentially growing degree of software integration in automotive ECUs. We are seeing an increasing number of ECUs with mixed criticality software. ISO26262 describes different safety requirements, including freedom from interference and absence from error propagation for the software. These requirements mandate particular attention for mixed-criticality ECUs. In this paper we investigate the ability to guarantee that these safety requirements will be fulfilled by using established (deadline monitoring) and new error detection mechanisms (execution time monitoring). We also show how these methods can be used to build up safe and efficient schedules for today's and future automotive embedded real time systems with mixed criticality software.
Technical Paper

Efficient Virtualization for Functional Integration on Modern Microcontrollers in Safety-Relevant Domains

The infrastructure in modern cars is a heterogeneous and historically grown network of different field buses coupling different electronic control units (ECUs) from different sources. In the past years, the amount of ECUs in the network has rapidly grown due to the mushrooming of new functions which historically were mostly implemented on a one-ECU-per-function basis resulting in up to a hundred ECUs in fully equipped luxury cars. Additionally, new functions like parking assist systems or advanced chassis control functions are getting increasingly complex and require more computing power. These two facts add up to a complex challenge in development. The current trend to host several functions in single ECUs as integration platforms is one attempt to address this challenge. This trend is supported by the increased computing power of current and upcoming multi-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Properties and Limitation of an Oxide Coated Aluminum Brake Rotor

The electrification of the powertrain and the thereto related recuperation of the electric engine saves the energy in the battery and thus reduces the thermally dissipated brake energy, which leads to lower brake rotor temperatures compared to combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These new conditions enable to reconsider brake disc concepts. Including lightweight design in heavy battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the increasingly reliant corrosion resistance of brake rotors, Aluminum is a promising approach for new brake disc concepts. In the past, Aluminum brake disc concepts have already been deployed. For instance Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite (Al-MMC) concepts in the Lotus Elise S1 and on the rear axle of the Volvo V40 [1]. The presented concept is a different approach and separates the friction system from the bulk Aluminum brake disc, achieved by coating of the friction rings.
Technical Paper

Non-Intrusive Tracing at First Instruction

In recent years, we see more and more ECUs integrating a huge number of application software components. This process mostly results from the increasing amount of so called in-house software in various fields like electric-drive, chassis and driver assistance systems. The software development for these systems is partially moved from the supplier to the car manufacturers. Another important trend is the introduction of new network architectures intending to meet the growing communication requirements. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more quality of service requirements with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered [2]. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional, but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for modern electronic systems [6,7,8,9].
Technical Paper

On Timing Requirements and a Critical Gap between Function Development and ECU Integration

With the increasing complexity of electronic vehicle systems, one particular “gap” between function development and ECU integration becomes more and more apparent, and critical; albeit not new. The core of the problem is: as more functions are integrated and share the same E/E resources, they increasingly mutually influence and disturb each other in terms of memory, peripherals, and also timing and performance. This has two consequences: The amount of timing-related errors increases (because of the disturbance) and it becomes more difficult to find root causes of timing errors (because of the mutual influences). This calls for more systematic methods to deal with timing requirements in general and their transformation from function timing requirements to software architecture timing requirements in particular.
Journal Article

Adapted Development Process for Security in Networked Automotive Systems

Future automotive systems will be connected with other vehicles and information systems for improved road safety, mobility and comfort. This new connectivity establishes data and command channels between the internal automotive system and arbitrary external entities. One significant issue of this paradigm shift is that formerly closed automotive systems now become open systems that can be maliciously influenced through their communication interfaces. This introduces a new class of security challenges for automotive design. It also indirectly impacts the safety mechanisms that rely on a closed-world assumption for the vehicle. We present a new security analysis approach that helps to identify and prioritize security issues in automotive architectures. The methodology incorporates a new threat classification for data flows in connected vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.