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Technical Paper

Model-Predictive Energy Management for the Integration of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles into Building Energy Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1443
In current research projects such as "Vehicle to Grid" (V2G), "Vehicle to Building" (V2B) or "Vehicle to Home" (V2H), plug-in vehicles are integrated into stationary energy systems. V2B or V2H therefore stands for intelligent networking between vehicles and buildings. However, in these projects the objective is mostly from a pure electric point of view, to smooth the load profile on a household level by optimized charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In the present paper a small energy system of this kind, consisting of a building and a vehicle, is investigated from a holistic point of view. Thermal as well as electrical system components are taken into account and there is a focus on reduction of overall energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. A predictive energy management is presented that coordinates the integration of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the energy systems of a building. System operation is optimized in terms of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Software Development Process and Software-Components for X-by-Wire Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-1288
The term X-by-Wire is commonly used in the automotive industry to describe the notion of replacing current mechanical or hydraulic chassis and powertrain systems with pure electro-mechanical systems. The paper describes the current trends and the architecture of future chassis electronics systems. The first part of the paper covers the systems architecture of x-by-wire electronics systems. We describe the network and the software architecture in more detail. The paper also explains some of the software components, in particular the operating system and the communication layer. The second part of the paper gives a description of the current state of the development process for software intended for safety-relevant systems. A possible tool chain for this development process, current possibilities as well as limitations and challenges are described.
Technical Paper

Time-Triggered Architecture Based on FlexRay: Roadmap from High-Speed Data Networking to Safety-Relevant Automotive Applications

2006-10-16
2006-21-0042
Future applications in the automotive domain such as distributed control functions need a highly dependable communication system. The current FlexRay standard already provides high transmission speeds and addresses deterministic data communication. This paper shows how to enhance the safety properties for handling a new set of applications and speeding up the communication even more. The concept of Layered FlexRay is based on the FlexRay protocol and addresses the requirements of safety-relevant applications in a distributed communication network. An implementation of this approach is depicted with a Safety Core hardware chip. It is designed to handle the communication between the FlexRay system beneath and the application on the host CPU above, providing highly efficient data management and execution of safety functions which otherwise would have to be executed in software on the host CPU.
Technical Paper

Collaborative Product Creation Driving the MOST Cooperation

2002-10-21
2002-21-0003
The following document offers insight into the work of the MOST Cooperation. Now that MOST is on the road, a short overview of five years of successful collaborative work of the partners involved and the results achieved will be given. Emphasis is put on the importance of a shared vision in combination with shared values as a prerequisite for targeted collaborative work. It is also about additional key success factors that led to the success of the MOST Cooperation. Your attention will be directed to the way the MOST Cooperation sets and achieves its goals. And you will learn about how the organization was set-up to support a fast progression towards the common goal. The document concludes with examples of recent work as well as an outlook on future work.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

2007-05-15
2007-01-2388
The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Technical Paper

Software Architecture Methods and Mechanisms for Timing Error and Failure Detection According to ISO 26262: Deadline vs. Execution Time Monitoring

2013-04-08
2013-01-0174
More electronic vehicle functions lead to an exponentially growing degree of software integration in automotive ECUs. We are seeing an increasing number of ECUs with mixed criticality software. ISO26262 describes different safety requirements, including freedom from interference and absence from error propagation for the software. These requirements mandate particular attention for mixed-criticality ECUs. In this paper we investigate the ability to guarantee that these safety requirements will be fulfilled by using established (deadline monitoring) and new error detection mechanisms (execution time monitoring). We also show how these methods can be used to build up safe and efficient schedules for today's and future automotive embedded real time systems with mixed criticality software.
Technical Paper

Efficient Virtualization for Functional Integration on Modern Microcontrollers in Safety-Relevant Domains

2014-04-01
2014-01-0206
The infrastructure in modern cars is a heterogeneous and historically grown network of different field buses coupling different electronic control units (ECUs) from different sources. In the past years, the amount of ECUs in the network has rapidly grown due to the mushrooming of new functions which historically were mostly implemented on a one-ECU-per-function basis resulting in up to a hundred ECUs in fully equipped luxury cars. Additionally, new functions like parking assist systems or advanced chassis control functions are getting increasingly complex and require more computing power. These two facts add up to a complex challenge in development. The current trend to host several functions in single ECUs as integration platforms is one attempt to address this challenge. This trend is supported by the increased computing power of current and upcoming multi-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

On Timing Requirements and a Critical Gap between Function Development and ECU Integration

2015-04-14
2015-01-0180
With the increasing complexity of electronic vehicle systems, one particular “gap” between function development and ECU integration becomes more and more apparent, and critical; albeit not new. The core of the problem is: as more functions are integrated and share the same E/E resources, they increasingly mutually influence and disturb each other in terms of memory, peripherals, and also timing and performance. This has two consequences: The amount of timing-related errors increases (because of the disturbance) and it becomes more difficult to find root causes of timing errors (because of the mutual influences). This calls for more systematic methods to deal with timing requirements in general and their transformation from function timing requirements to software architecture timing requirements in particular.
Journal Article

Adapted Development Process for Security in Networked Automotive Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0334
Future automotive systems will be connected with other vehicles and information systems for improved road safety, mobility and comfort. This new connectivity establishes data and command channels between the internal automotive system and arbitrary external entities. One significant issue of this paradigm shift is that formerly closed automotive systems now become open systems that can be maliciously influenced through their communication interfaces. This introduces a new class of security challenges for automotive design. It also indirectly impacts the safety mechanisms that rely on a closed-world assumption for the vehicle. We present a new security analysis approach that helps to identify and prioritize security issues in automotive architectures. The methodology incorporates a new threat classification for data flows in connected vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0763
Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.
Technical Paper

Multicore vs Safety

2010-04-12
2010-01-0207
It is the beginning of a new age: multicore technology from the PC desktop market is now also hitting the automotive domain after several years of maturation. New microcontrollers with two or more main processing cores have been announced to provide the next step change in available computing power while keeping costs and power consumption at a reasonable level. These new multicore devices should not be confused with the specialized safety microcontrollers using two redundant cores to detect possible hardware failures which are already available. Nor should they be confused with the heterogeneous multicore solutions employing an additional support core to offload a single main processing core from real-time tasks (e.g. handling peripherals).
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