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Technical Paper

Ideas for Next Lighting Generations in Digitalization and Autonomous Driving

Digitalization in Industry and Society is progressing quickly. Up to now, just 5 static and standard lighting applications have been dominating in the U.S. (Low/High Beam, Daytime Running Lamp Turn Indicator & Position Lamp). The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs and research findings. In Europe, GTB has established a working group dedicated to this topic. The article will discuss the possible contribution of signalling and lighting functions to Digitalization and Autonomous driving by explaining the first elements of functional definition and research results.
Technical Paper

Glare Investigations and Safety Research on Digital Light Technologies

New human-machine interfaces are the direct result of digitalization. So also in lighting, new constellations have to be taken into account when looking to the possibilities of giving additional informations to the driver. Lighting and furthermore information given by light is a clear preference during nighttime driving. The global interest in standardization of light driven messages from autonomous vehicles to other traffic participants has opened new research needs in order to prepare full view on such new human-machine interface. In Europe, GTB (Group de Travail de Bruxelles) has established a working group dedicated to this topic. In order to provide a complete picture of the effects of digital light, the question of additional glare contribution by digital informations, i.e. extra projected light in form of patterns, symbols or areas was addressed in this research study. This article will show the investigations on wet and dry road glare while driving with digital informations.
Technical Paper

Model-Predictive Energy Management for the Integration of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles into Building Energy Systems

In current research projects such as "Vehicle to Grid" (V2G), "Vehicle to Building" (V2B) or "Vehicle to Home" (V2H), plug-in vehicles are integrated into stationary energy systems. V2B or V2H therefore stands for intelligent networking between vehicles and buildings. However, in these projects the objective is mostly from a pure electric point of view, to smooth the load profile on a household level by optimized charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In the present paper a small energy system of this kind, consisting of a building and a vehicle, is investigated from a holistic point of view. Thermal as well as electrical system components are taken into account and there is a focus on reduction of overall energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. A predictive energy management is presented that coordinates the integration of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the energy systems of a building. System operation is optimized in terms of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Collaborative Product Creation Driving the MOST Cooperation

The following document offers insight into the work of the MOST Cooperation. Now that MOST is on the road, a short overview of five years of successful collaborative work of the partners involved and the results achieved will be given. Emphasis is put on the importance of a shared vision in combination with shared values as a prerequisite for targeted collaborative work. It is also about additional key success factors that led to the success of the MOST Cooperation. Your attention will be directed to the way the MOST Cooperation sets and achieves its goals. And you will learn about how the organization was set-up to support a fast progression towards the common goal. The document concludes with examples of recent work as well as an outlook on future work.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Concepts Based on Customer-Relevant Characteristics

Electric vehicles differ from conventionally powered vehicles in terms of many characteristics that are directly relevant to the customer. The most evident ones are the total driving range, which is limited by the battery capacity, and the different acceleration behavior, which is directly influenced by the electric motor's torque characteristics. Furthermore, there are many other vehicle characteristics, such as lateral dynamics, that are also strongly influenced by electrification. For all customer-relevant vehicle characteristics, it is important to know the necessary and optimal fulfillments in order to plan and evaluate new electrified vehicle concepts. Correlation functions can be used to convert values for technical characteristics to normalized customer satisfaction fulfillments. To evaluate the quality of a vehicle concept during the development process, a parametric cost function is defined.
Technical Paper

Properties and Limitation of an Oxide Coated Aluminum Brake Rotor

The electrification of the powertrain and the thereto related recuperation of the electric engine saves the energy in the battery and thus reduces the thermally dissipated brake energy, which leads to lower brake rotor temperatures compared to combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These new conditions enable to reconsider brake disc concepts. Including lightweight design in heavy battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the increasingly reliant corrosion resistance of brake rotors, Aluminum is a promising approach for new brake disc concepts. In the past, Aluminum brake disc concepts have already been deployed. For instance Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite (Al-MMC) concepts in the Lotus Elise S1 and on the rear axle of the Volvo V40 [1]. The presented concept is a different approach and separates the friction system from the bulk Aluminum brake disc, achieved by coating of the friction rings.
Journal Article

Adapted Development Process for Security in Networked Automotive Systems

Future automotive systems will be connected with other vehicles and information systems for improved road safety, mobility and comfort. This new connectivity establishes data and command channels between the internal automotive system and arbitrary external entities. One significant issue of this paradigm shift is that formerly closed automotive systems now become open systems that can be maliciously influenced through their communication interfaces. This introduces a new class of security challenges for automotive design. It also indirectly impacts the safety mechanisms that rely on a closed-world assumption for the vehicle. We present a new security analysis approach that helps to identify and prioritize security issues in automotive architectures. The methodology incorporates a new threat classification for data flows in connected vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.

Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles, Fifth Edition

The detailed presentation of fundamental aerodynamics principles that influence and improve vehicle design have made Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles the engineer’s “source” for information. This fifth edition features updated and expanded information beyond that which was presented in previous releases. Completely new content covers lateral stability, safety and comfort, wind noise, high performance vehicles, helmets, engine cooling, and computational fluid dynamics.