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The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-11-17
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Technical Paper

Dual Line Exhaust Design Optimisation to Maximize SCR Catalyst Efficiency thru Improved Ammonia Distribution

2009-04-20
2009-01-0914
The SCR after treatment system is already in production for passenger car engines with a single exhaust system. In this case, the exhaust system has to be designed very carefully to optimize the Ammonia distribution on the catalyst and therefore the DeNOx potential. The application to V8 engines with two turbochargers delivering the gas into two separated DOC & DPF units is an additional challenge. This paper describes the different optimization steps of such an exhaust system and the tools used during this work. After a design phase to integrate the SCR system in the exhaust geometry, a first CFD study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the basic system using one or two urea injectors. An optimization of the connection of the two tubes, directly in front of the SCR catalyst, has been designed using further CFD calculations as well as a marker gas SF6 on a cold flow bench.
Technical Paper

The Best Function for the Seat of a Passenger Car

1985-02-01
850484
In order to optimize the function of an automobile seat, its geometrical and physical properties must be designed so that the loads resulting from the body weight and ambient factors (such as vibration, forces arising from vehicle dynamics, climatic conditions) act on the body of the occupant in such a way that the stress to which it is subjected is kept to a minimum. The physically measurable loads subject the driver to stress, i.e. they act mainly by changing biological processes in the organism, and drivers of widely different body statures must be considered. So the “correct” seat will necessarily be a compromise. From a careful integration of all requirements using the latest techniques, it emerged that an all-foam seat cushion incorporating varying degrees of firmness could be used to advantage. In this way Audi succeeded relatively quickly in designing a seat arrangement with remarkably positive characteristics.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structureborne Noise in a Fully Trimmed Vehicle Using Poroelastic Finite Elements Method (PEM)

2014-06-30
2014-01-2083
Since the last decade, the automotive industry has expressed the need to better understand how the different trim parts interact together in a complete car up to 400 Hz for structureborne excitations. Classical FE methods in which the acoustic trim is represented as non-structural masses (NSM) and high damping or surface absorbers on the acoustic cavity can only be used at lower frequencies and do not provide insights into the interactions of the acoustic trims with the structure and the acoustic volume. It was demonstrated in several papers that modelling the acoustic components using the poroelastic finite element method (PEM) can yield accurate vibro-acoustic response such as transmission loss of a car component [1,2,3]. The increase of performance of today's computers and the further optimization of commercial simulation codes allow computations on full vehicle level [4,5,6] with adequate accuracy and computation times, which is essential for a car OEM.
Technical Paper

Model-Predictive Energy Management for the Integration of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles into Building Energy Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1443
In current research projects such as "Vehicle to Grid" (V2G), "Vehicle to Building" (V2B) or "Vehicle to Home" (V2H), plug-in vehicles are integrated into stationary energy systems. V2B or V2H therefore stands for intelligent networking between vehicles and buildings. However, in these projects the objective is mostly from a pure electric point of view, to smooth the load profile on a household level by optimized charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In the present paper a small energy system of this kind, consisting of a building and a vehicle, is investigated from a holistic point of view. Thermal as well as electrical system components are taken into account and there is a focus on reduction of overall energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. A predictive energy management is presented that coordinates the integration of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the energy systems of a building. System operation is optimized in terms of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Diffuse Interior Lighting Situation and Examining Its Results in a Virtual Reality Environment

2002-03-04
2002-01-0977
To produce an appealing ambient interior lighting design, the illumination inside a car is generated by diffuse reflections at the surfaces of the interior. So the complete illumination set can be determined by using all light sources and the attributes of the surface materials of the interior geometry. Normally, the early concept phase of the car is ideally to integrate the interior lighting in the styling of the car. But in this phase it is nearly impossible to measure and optimize the interior light due to continuous changes in car interior styling. An approach of simulating the diffuse illumination situation of car interior by using a radiosity method is presented. Then the results of the radiosity calculation are prepared in order to use them in a virtual reality environment. First the physical basics and their numerical implementation are shown. Then the material attributes, which are essential for calculation and their measurement based on real materials, are presented.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Compaction Processes of Friction Material Mixes

2002-10-06
2002-01-2594
In the production of brake disc pads, powder mixes containing, metal chips, filling agents, and abrasive materials, as well as phenolic resins are processed and molded to a back plate by way of pressure and temperature. These molded disc pads reach their final strength through additional thermal treatment such that the phenolic resins approach “full cure”. This production process leads to anisotropic, viscoelastic, and to a certain extent heterogeneous materials which are - like the brake system- increasingly subject to even greater demands. E.g. apart from tribological characteristics, more and more focus is placed on structure-mechanical properties to improve the braking comfort.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

2015-04-14
2015-01-1442
Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

Collaborative Product Creation Driving the MOST Cooperation

2002-10-21
2002-21-0003
The following document offers insight into the work of the MOST Cooperation. Now that MOST is on the road, a short overview of five years of successful collaborative work of the partners involved and the results achieved will be given. Emphasis is put on the importance of a shared vision in combination with shared values as a prerequisite for targeted collaborative work. It is also about additional key success factors that led to the success of the MOST Cooperation. Your attention will be directed to the way the MOST Cooperation sets and achieves its goals. And you will learn about how the organization was set-up to support a fast progression towards the common goal. The document concludes with examples of recent work as well as an outlook on future work.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Trim Component and Reduction of the Road Noise Transmission Based on Finite Element Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1547
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in NVH behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package solution. This paper presents a two-steps process which aims to reduce the structure borne road noise due to floor panel using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran. The embossment of the supporting steel structure, the material properties of porous layers and the thickness of visco-elastic patches are the design variables of the optimization process.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Simulations with Experiments of Bluff Bodies Including Under-Hood Flow

2011-04-12
2011-01-0171
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is state of the art in the aerodynamic development process of vehicles nowadays. With increasing computer power the numerical simulations including meshing and turbulence modeling are capturing the complex geometry of vehicles and the flow field behavior around and behind a bluff body in more detail. The ultimate goal for realistic automotive simulations is to model the under-hood as well. In this study vehicle simulations using the finite volume open source CFD program OpenFOAM® are validated with own experiments on a modified generic quarter-scale SAE body with under-hood flow. A model radiator was included to take account of the pressure drop in the under-hood compartment. Force and pressure measurements around the car, total-pressure and hot-wire measurements in the car flow field and surface flow patterns were simulated and compared with the experiment.
Journal Article

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-04-12
2011-01-0175
The paper describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The paper illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Technical Paper

Ridemeter – Calculated Ride Comfort

2007-05-15
2007-01-2388
The ridemeter is a development tool that provides a predictive value for subjectively perceived ride quality on the basis of objective measured values. After years of preliminary investigations it was possible to make the link between the subjective driving experience and objective measured data. Intensive validation of the tool known as the ridemeter enables it to obtain meaningful results, which meet with a high degree of acceptance from the development engineer. The ridemeter is capable of providing calculated assessments for different vehicle concepts on different roads. The ridemeter is used on general road tests, on test runs on the AUDI proving ground, on our test rigs and in simulation. Areas of application include benchmark investigations, optimisation steps for suspension components and systems, and the setting out of limit values and tolerance curves in specifications for future vehicles.
Journal Article

Optimization of Lateral Vehicle Dynamics by Targeted Dimensioning of the Rim Width

2015-12-01
2015-01-9114
The aim of this investigation is the improvement of the lateral vehicle dynamics by optimizing the rim width. For that purpose, the rim width is considered as a development tool and configured with regard to specified targets. Using a specifically developed method of simulation, the influence of the rim width is analysed within different levels - starting at the component level “tyre” and going up to the level of the whole vehicle. With the help of substantial simulations using a nonlinear two-track model, the dimensioning of the rim width is brought to an optimum. Based on both, tyre and vehicle measurements, the theoretical studies can be proved in practice. As a result, the rim width has a strong influence on the behaviour of the tyre as well as on the overall vehicle performance, which emphasises its importance as a potential development tool within the development of a chassis.
Journal Article

Fast Crank-Angle Based 0D Simulation of Combustion Engine Cold Tests including Manufacturing Faults and Production Spread

2016-04-05
2016-01-1374
During series production of modern combustion engines a major challenge is to ensure the correct operation of every engine part. A common method is to test engines in end-of-line (EOL) cold test stations, where the engines are not fired but tugged by an electric motor. In this work we present a physically based 0D model for dynamic simulation of combustion engines under EOL test conditions. Our goals are the analysis of manufacturing faults regarding their detectability and the enhancement of test procedures under varying environmental conditions. Physical experiments are prohibitive in production environments, and the simulative approach reduces them to a minimum. This model is the first known to the authors exploring advanced engine test methods under production conditions. The model supports a wide range of manufacturing faults (with adjustable magnitude) as well as error-free production spread in engine components.
Technical Paper

Process Modeling in the Life Cycle Design - Environmental Modeling of Joining Technologies within the Automotive Industry -

1998-11-30
982190
For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Analysis of Test Results

2010-04-12
2010-01-1013
The use of a newly developed approach results in a highly accurate three dimensional analysis of the occupant movement. The central point of the new method is the calculation of precise body-trajectories by fitting standard sensor-measurements to video analysis data. With the new method the accuracy of the calculated trajectories is better than 5 to 10 millimeters. These body trajectories then form the basis for a new multi-body based numerical method, which allows the three dimensional reconstruction of the dummy kinematics. In addition, forces and moments acting on every single body are determined. In principle, the body movement is reconstructed by prescribing external forces and moments to every single body requiring that it follows the measured trajectory. The newly developed approach provides additional accurate information for the development engineers. For example the motion of dummy body parts not tracked by video analysis can be determined.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Concepts Based on Customer-Relevant Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0815
Electric vehicles differ from conventionally powered vehicles in terms of many characteristics that are directly relevant to the customer. The most evident ones are the total driving range, which is limited by the battery capacity, and the different acceleration behavior, which is directly influenced by the electric motor's torque characteristics. Furthermore, there are many other vehicle characteristics, such as lateral dynamics, that are also strongly influenced by electrification. For all customer-relevant vehicle characteristics, it is important to know the necessary and optimal fulfillments in order to plan and evaluate new electrified vehicle concepts. Correlation functions can be used to convert values for technical characteristics to normalized customer satisfaction fulfillments. To evaluate the quality of a vehicle concept during the development process, a parametric cost function is defined.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Engineering Methods in Heavy-Vehicle Aerodynamics

2017-08-25
2017-01-7001
The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Approach towards the Self-Correcting Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0579
Open jet wind tunnels are normally tuned to measure “correct” results without any modifications to the raw data. This is an important difference to closed wall wind tunnels, which usually require wind tunnel corrections. The tuning of open jet facilities is typically done experimentally using pilot tunnels and adding final adjustments in the commissioning phase of the full scale tunnel. This approach lacked theoretical background in the past. There is still a common belief outside the small group of people designing and using open jet wind tunnels, that - similar to closed wind tunnels, which generally measure too high aerodynamic forces and moments without correction - open jet wind tunnels measure coefficient too low compared to the real world. The paper will try to show that there is a solid physical foundation underlying the experimental approach and that the expectation to receive self-correcting behavior can be supported by theoretical models.
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