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Technical Paper

Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

2019-11-21
2019-28-2394
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled-down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Ride- Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck using MATLAB Simulink.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2428
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations.
Technical Paper

A Novel Method for Active Vibration Control of Steering Wheel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0180
Active control mainly comprises of three parts; sensor-detects the input disturbance, actuator -provide counter measures and control logic -processing of input disturbances and converting it into logical output. Lot of methods for active vibration control are available but this paper deals with active control of steering wheel vibrations of an LCV. A steering wheel is, one such component that directly transfers vibration to the driver. Active technique described here is implemented using accelerometer sensor, IMA (Inertial Mass Actuator) and feed forward Fx-LMS (Filtered reference Least Mean Square) control algorithm. IMA is a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator. To enable a control, IMA needs to be coupled to the structure at a single point, acting as an add-on to the passive system. Fx-LMS is a type of adaptive algorithm which is computationally simple and it also includes compensation for secondary path effects by using an estimate of the secondary path.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Retrofit Solution for Converting a Conventional LCV into Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0117
In today’s scenario, the emission norms are getting stringent day by day due to an increased level of pollution. The world is shifting towards low carbon footprint which made it necessary to adopt efficient technologies with fewer emissions. The hybridization of vehicles has resulted in improved efficiency with lower emissions which can fulfil the near future emission norms. Retrofitting of hybrid components into a conventional IC engine vehicle is so far the best way to achieve better performance both economically and technologically. This research is primarily focused on the design and development of a novel retrofit solution of P3x architecture for the light commercial vehicle. This retrofit solution is different from other hybrid solutions in terms of powertrain. It contains an innovative add-on powertrain along with the existing powertrain. This additional powertrain consists of a pair of helical gears followed by a chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

2019-03-25
2019-01-1435
Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Control Strategy for Adaptive Front-Lighting System Suitable for Indian Road and Traffic Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0007
In year 2015, 17 people were killed every hour by road accidents in India [1]. The occurrence of road accidents is observed to be higher during night, when visibility is at its lowest. The two factors which affect visibility are insufficient illumination and glare caused by the oncoming traffic. The Adaptive Front Lighting System [AFS] is an active safety feature which addresses these problems by employing specific lighting modes for Town, Country, Expressway conditions and automatic switching between Driving Beam and Passing Beam whenever required. Matrix of LEDs or a Projector with an actuator or a combination of both is employed in achieving different Lighting modes. The projector based AFS module is preferred for implementing the AFS control logic for passing beam owing to its economic cost.
Technical Paper

Optimization in Tube Yoke Forging Process using Computer Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0238
New process development of forging component requires in-depth knowledge and experience related to the process. Also it requires number of physical trials to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. With the help of reliable computer simulation tool, it is possible to optimize the complete forging process and billet dimensions. Simulation provides much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. This saves considerable time and money. This paper describes about a complete forging process designed for a complex component. With the help of metal forming simulation software, complete forging process was simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Billet weight optimization was also carried out. Deciding the preforming shape of the billet was the main challenge. An innovative pre-forging shape was arrived which resulted in eliminating one process stage.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Optimization from Design to Experimentation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0264
Virtual modeling of engine and predicting the performance and emissions is now becoming an essential step in engine development for off-road application due to the flexibility in tuning of the combustion parameters and requirement of shorter development times. This paper presents an approach where the test bed calibration time is reduced using virtual techniques, such as 1D thermodynamic simulation and 3D CFD combustion simulation for 4 cylinders TCIC engine complying with Stage IIIA emission norms. 1D thermodynamic simulation has played an important role in the early stage development of an engine for selection of engine sub systems like turbocharger, manifolds, EGR system, valve timings etc. The application of 1D Simulation tool for combustion system development, focusing on NOx emissions for an off road multicylinder mechanical injection diesel engine is discussed.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Prediction of Windscreen Wiping Area through Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0257
Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
Technical Paper

LCV Chassis Frame Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Experimental Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0289
The design and development of complete vehicle, understanding of chassis system development process is an important task. Chassis frame of a vehicle is supporting member, both structurally and functionally, to all other chassis aggregate systems viz. suspension, steering, braking system etc. In this paper, a methodology for chassis frame model construction and validation is explained. In present work, chassis frame model is validated in terms of modal parameters and also against static loading conditions. Existing chassis 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) data was generated using scanning and cloud point data conversion technique. FE model was generated and validated through experimental measurements viz. modal testing, vertical bending, lateral bending, and torsional bending test. Loading and boundary conditions were replicated on the complete FE model in CAE domain and test validation was carried out using appropriate mesh biasing and weld modeling techniques.
Technical Paper

Full Matrix OBD Verification and Validation of EMS using Hardware in Loop Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0284
On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators. Carrying out the full matrix failure testing on the running engine could be tedious, unsafe and time consuming.
Journal Article

Generation of 3D-Digital Indian Public Road Profile Database and Its Application for Vehicle Development through Road-Vehicle Interaction Study

2017-01-10
2017-26-0275
Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Aerodynamic Noise Prediction for Electric Vehicle Traction Motor and Its Validation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0270
With emission norms getting more and more stringent, the trend is shifting towards electric and hybrid vehicles. Electric motor replaces engine as the prime mover in these vehicles. Though these vehicles are quieter compared to their engine counterpart, they exhibit certain annoying sound quality perception. There is no standard methodology to predict the noise levels of these motors. Electric motor noise comprises of mainly three sources viz., Aerodynamic, Electromagnetic and Mechanical. A methodology has been developed to predict two major noise sources of electric motor out of the three above viz. Mechanical and Aerodynamic noise. These two noise sources are responsible for the tonal noise in an electric motor. Aerodynamic noise arises most often around the fan, or in the vicinity of the machine that behaves like a fan. This noise is predominant at higher motor speed and also in electric vehicle due to higher speed fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of NOx in the Exhaust of a CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Using In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Based Variables

2016-02-01
2016-28-0153
Alternative fuels for both spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have become very important owing to increased environmental protection concern, the need to reduce dependency on petroleum and even socioeconomic aspects. An appropriate sustainable fuel alternative has turn out to be a main concern and bio-diesel is one of the sustainable fuels. The path of interest in biodiesel has highlighted its advantages which include decrease in hydrocarbon and particulate matter. Meanwhile its shortcoming includes higher emission of oxides of nitrogen. This work is an attempt to develop a mathematical relationship to predict thermal NOx in CI engine fuelled with neat biodiesel. Attention was focused on using in-cylinder pressure based variables to predict NOx. In cylinder pressure measurement is a valuable tool for the analysis of CI engine combustion, which is used for finding the heat release rate, ignition delay, etc.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of 6 Speed Gearbox of Tipper Application to Improve Gear Contact Life

2017-01-10
2017-26-0060
The function of the automotive transmission is to reliably transmit torque and motion between engine and wheels at acceptable levels of noise, vibration and desired life. Gear drive components most commonly subject to distress are the gears, shafts, bearings and seals. The variables in the entire power-system, such as vibration, misalignment, type of lubricant used, material properties, operating temperature and abuse are considered as the main root causes for the gear failures. The bending and contact strength of the gear tooth are considered to be one of the main contributors for the failure of the gear in a gear set. Thus, Heartzian stress analysis has become popular as an area of research on gears to minimize or to reduce the failures of gears. In this research work, one of the major field issues related to 1st gear and reverse gear pitting at very low life for 6 speed manual transmission for mining/ quarry application is studied.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Cylinder Turbocharged Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0065
CNG has recently seen increased penetration within the automotive industry. Due to recent sanctions on diesel fuelled vehicles, manufactures have again shifted their attention to natural gas as a suitable alternative. Turbocharging of SI engines has seen widespread application due to its benefit in terms of engine downsizing and increasing engine performance [1]. This paper discusses the methodology involved in development of a multi cylinder turbocharged natural gas engine from an existing diesel engine. Various parameters such as valve timing, intake volume, runner length, etc. were studied using 1D simulation tool GT power and based on their results an optimized configuration was selected and a proto engine was built. Electronic throttle body was used to give better transient performance and emission control. Turbocharger selection and its location plays a critical role.
Technical Paper

Systematic Evaluation of 20% Ethanol Gasoline Blend (E20) as a Potential Alternate Fuel

2017-01-10
2017-26-0072
Utilization of higher ethanol blends, 20% ethanol in gasoline (E20), as an alternate fuel can provide apparent benefits like higher octane number leading to improved anti-knocking properties, higher oxygen content resulting in complete combustion. Apart from technical benefits, use of ethanol blends offer certain widespread socioeconomic benefits including option of renewable source of energy, value addition to agriculture feedstock resulting in increase in farm income, creation of more jobs in rural sector and creating job at local levels. Use of higher blends of ethanol can reduce dependence on foreign crude leading to substantial savings in cost of petroleum import. The impact of higher Gasoline-Ethanol blend (E20), on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known for assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for the complete design life of the system.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel from Microalgae

2017-01-10
2017-26-0077
Microalgae as feedstock are the potential third generation biofuels. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganism which requires light, carbon-di-oxide, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium for growth and to produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short a periods of time. The production of biofuels from microalgal is a viable alternative due to their easy adaptability to growth conditions, possibility of growing biomass either in fresh or marine waters. Hence the current project was designed to elucidate the biodiesel producing ability of blue-green algae such as Spirulina platensis and Green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The selected algae were cultivated in suitable growth media such as modified Zarrouke medium and bold basal medium, respectively. The Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were mass cultured for 8 days then harvested using 50 micron nylon filters and dried in sunlight to obtain dry biomass.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of EV/HEV Systems Using xEV Offline Simulator

2017-01-10
2017-26-0097
This paper introduces xEV Simulator- A MATLAB based simulator platform capable of analyzing EV/HEV powertrain system in both backward and forward modelling. xEV Simulator employs Forward Simulation for drive-cycle performance evaluations and Backward simulation for powertrain component sizing and support xEV powertrain design. The powertrain subsystems are modelled in Simulink. This enables the model based system simulation and further controller prototyping and HiL testing. xEV Offline Simulator GUI enables user to simulate standard EV/HEV configurations with standard drive-cycles. The model parameters of different component subsystems can be configured. The Backward modelling and simulation support the estimation of subsystem values like Propulsion motor, Energy storage, etc., to perform as per the drive-cycle requirement.
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