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Technical Paper

A Methodology for Cycle-By-Cycle Transient Heat Release Analysis in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Diesel Engine

This study presents a systematic methodology for performing transient heat release analysis in a diesel engine. Novel techniques have been developed to infer the mass of air trapped in the cylinder and the mass of fuel injected on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The cyclic mass of air trapped in the cylinder is found accounting for pressure gradients, piston motion and short-circuiting during the valve overlap period. The cyclic mass of fuel injected is computed from the injection pressure history. These parameters are used in conjunction with cycle-resolved pressure data to accurately define the instantaneous thermodynamic state of the mixture. This information is used in the calculation and interpretation of transient heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study

This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study two different powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction and its Application to Heat Transfer Analysis

In this paper, a new method for cylinder pressure reconstruction is proposed based on the concept of a dimensionless pressure curve in the frequency domain. It is shown that cylinder pressure profiles, acquired over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, exhibit similarity. Hence, cylinder pressure traces collapse into a set of dimensionless curves within a narrow range after normalization in the frequency domain. The dimensionless pressure traces can be described by a curve-fit family, which can be used for reconstructing pressure diagrams back into the time domain at any desired condition. The accuracy associated with this method is analyzed and its application to engine heat transfer analysis is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Dual-Use Engine Calibration:

Modern diesel engines manufactured for commercial vehicles are calibrated to meet EPA emissions regulations. Many of the technologies and strategies typically incorporated to meet emissions targets compromise engine performance and efficiency. When used in military applications, however, engine performance and efficiency are of utmost importance in combat conditions or in remote locations where fuel supplies are scarce. This motivates the study of the potential to utilize the flexibility of emissions-reduction technologies toward optimizing engine performance while still keeping the emissions within tolerable limits. The study was conducted on a modern medium-duty International V-8 diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The performance-emissions tradeoffs were explored using design of experiments and response surface methodology.
Journal Article

Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate

Low-sulfur “clean” diesel fuel has been mandated in the US and Europe. However, quality of diesel fuel, particularly the sulfur content, varies significantly in other parts of the world. Due to logistical issues in various theaters of operation, the Army is often forced to rely on local fuel supplies, which exposes vehicles to diesel fuel or jet fuel (JP-8) with elevated levels of sulfur. Modern engines typically use cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to meet emissions regulations. Using high-sulfur fuels and cooled EGR elevates problems associated with cooler fouling and corrosion of engine components. Hence, an experimental study has been carried out in a heavy-duty diesel engine running on standard JP-8 fuel and fuel doped with 2870 ppm of sulfur. Gas was sampled from the EGR cooler and analyzed using a condensate collection device developed according to a modified ASTM 3226-73T standard. Engine-out emissions were analyzed in parallel.