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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940393
Current demands for high fuel efficiency and low emissions in automotive powerplants have drawn attention to the two-stroke engine configuration. The present study measured trapping and scavenging efficiencies of a firing two-stroke spark-ignition engine by in-cylinder gas composition analysis. Intermediate results of the procedure included the trapped air-fuel ratio and residual exhaust gas fraction. Samples, acquired with a fast-acting electromagnetic valve installed in the cylinder head, were taken of the unburned mixture without fuel injection and of the burned gases prior to exhaust port opening, at engine speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm and at 10 to 100% of full load. A semi-empirical, zero-dimensional scavenging model was developed based on modification of the non-isothermal, perfect-mixing model. Comparison to the experimental data shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of MMT on the OBD-11 Catalyst Efficiency Monitor

1993-10-01
932855
The effect of MMT on the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor has been investigated. The results conclusively show that manganese which is deposited onto the catalyst during the combustion of MMT- containing fuel provides for an increased level of catalyst oxygen storage capacity. This added oxygen storage was found to result in a reduced rear EGO sensor response and caused malfunctioning catalysts to be incorrectly diagnosed by the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Natural Gas Vehicle Catalytic Converters

1993-11-01
933036
Bench reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of operating temperature, precious metal loading, space velocity, and air-fuel (A/F) ratio on the performance of palladium (Pd) catalysts under simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust conditions. The performance of these catalysts under simulated gasoline vehicle (GV) conditions was also investigated. In the case of simulated NGV exhaust, where methane was used as the prototypical hydrocarbon (HC) species, peak three-way conversion was obtained under richer conditions than required with simulated GV exhaust (propane and propene HC species). Moreover, the hydrocarbon efficiency of the catalyst under simulated NGV exhaust conditions was more sensitive to both A/F ratio and perturbations in A/F ratio than the HC efficiency under GV exhaust conditions.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Nox Reduction Catalysts for Vehicle Emission Control

1972-02-01
720480
IIEC efforts to develop NOx catalysts with improved durability have continued. Properties of several nickel oxide catalysts on pelleted, monolithic ceramic, and metallic supports are discussed and the engineering requirements for their effective use are defined. Some promoted nickel oxide, pelleted catalysts show good low-temperature activity, and produce minimal amounts of ammonia but are strongly deactivated by sulfur in the feed gas. Monolithic and metallic catalysts, on the other hand, although not active at temperatures below 1000 F, are very active at higher temperatures where deactivation by sulfur and ammonia formation are not troublesome.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

A Heavy Truck Cab Suspension for Improved Ride

1978-02-01
780408
This paper presents a simplified concept of the cab-over-engine tractor ride problem. It discusses ways ride can be improved and the reasons cab suspension was chosen as the preferred solution. It describes the Ford CL-9000 cab suspension, explains why it improves ride and includes some data to indicate the benefits that are realized.
Technical Paper

The Microcomputer Based Engine Control System for the IIEC-2 Concept Car

1979-02-01
790508
The microcomputer based ignition timing, EGR and fuel injection control system for the IIEC-2 concept vehicle is described. The techniques used to compensate the fuel delivery for EGR, to minimize response time and to compensate for engine and injector non-uniformity are emphasized. These measures, in conjunction with limit cycle air/fuel ratio control utilizing feedback from an exhaust gas oxygen sensor, are examined with respect to the effect on three-way catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Lead Accumulation on Automotive Catalysts

1983-02-01
830270
Engine dynamometer and laboratory flow reactor studies of automotive catalyst deactivation caused by the use of leaded fuel indicate that there are two different deactivation mechanisms: one, which dominates between 700 and 800 C, is the poisoning of the active platinum sites by lead oxide, or perhaps lead, and the other, which occurs below 550 C, is a build up of a gas diffusion barrier of lead sulfate. Both deactivation mechanisms can be temporarily reversed. Poisoning is reversed when the platinum is freed of lead oxide by lead sulfate formation below 650 C; and the barrier formed below 550 C can be made more permeable by thermal sintering of the lead sulfate at 600 to 700 C or its decomposition to lead oxide at 700 to 800 C. However, further exposure of the catalyst will again render it inactive via the mechanism predominating in that temperature region.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Substrate and Catalyst System

1985-02-01
850553
Catalytic converters in heavy duty truck application are exposed to significantly higher temperatures than the temperatures considered safe for the conventional oxidation catalysts. A research program, which was conducted to evaluate high temperature substrates and catalyst systems in laboratory and engine tests, revealed that silicon nitride and stabilized aluminum titanate substrates provide melt resistance up to 3100°F. In contrast, the conventional cordierite substrates melt at approximately 2600°f. However, the questionable thermal stability of the aluminum titanate and the production feasibility silicon nitride substrates are open issues and the cordierite still remains as the best production feasible substrate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mileage Accumulation on Particulate Emissions from Vehicles Using Gasoline with Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl

1992-02-01
920731
Particulate and manganese mass emissions have been measured as a function of mileage for four Escort and four Explorer vehicles using 1) MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl) added to the gasoline at 1/32 g Mn/gal and 2) gasoline without MMT. The MMT was used in half of the fleet starting at 5,000 miles. The vehicles were driven on public roads at an average speed of 54 mph to accumulate mileage. This report describes the particulate and manganese emissions, plus emissions of four air toxics at 5,000, 20,000, 55,000, 85,000 and 105,000 miles. Four non-regulated emissions were measured and their average values for vehicles without MMT were 0.6 mg/mi for formaldehyde, 0.7 mg/mi for 1,3-butadiene, 9 mg/mi for benzene and 12 mg/mi for toluene. Corresponding values for MMT-fueled vehicles were between 1.5 and 2.4 times higher.
Technical Paper

Techniques for Analyzing Thermal Deactivation of Automotive Catalysts

1992-10-01
922336
Automotive three-way catalysts (TWC) were characterized using temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, chemisorption measurements and laboratory activity measurements. Capabilities and limitations of these standard analytical techniques for the characterization of production-type automotive catalysts are pointed out. With the exception of chemisorption techniques, all appear to have general utility for analyzing exhaust catalysts. The techniques were used to show that the noble metals and ceria in fresh Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh catalysts are initially highly dispersed and contain a mixture of interacting and non-interacting species. Thermal aging of these catalysts (in the reactor or vehicle) caused both precious metal and ceria particles to sinter, thereby decreasing the interaction between the two.
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