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BMW i3 - A Battery Electric Vehicle...Right from the Beginning

2012-03-29
What are the requirements of customers in an urban environment? What will sustainable mobility look like in the future? This presentation gives an overview of the integrated approach used by BMW to develop the BMW i3 - a purpose-built battery electric vehicle. Very low driving resistances for such a vehicle concept enable the delivery of both impressive range and driving excitement. A small optional auxiliary power unit offers range security for unexpected situations and opens up BEVs to customers who are willing to buy a BEV but are still hesitant due to range anxiety. Additional electric vehicles sold to the formerly range anxious will create additional electric miles. Presenter Franz Storkenmaier, BMW Group
Technical Paper

Integrating CE-based Applications into the Automotive HMI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0446
Being able to integrate consumer electronics (CE) devices into the automobile is an increasingly important goal. In this paper, we focus on the HMI (human machine interaction) aspects of consumer electronics in the car. We describe the requirements concerning HMI integration of consumer electronics and offer several possible solutions. One of the requirements is minimal driver distraction. A desired property in this context concerns the mental model that the user builds of the service that is to be operated: ideally, this model (i.e., appearance and interaction logic) need not change when integrating the service into the automobile, even though the operating elements differ considerably (e.g., touch screen vs. iDrive commander). A further requirement is posed by the dynamic nature of CE services: often, they are not known at design/deploy time of the HMI software of the automobile.
Technical Paper

Reinforced Light Metals for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1228
Efficiency and dynamic behavior of a vehicle are strongly affected by its weight. Taking into consideration comfort, safety and emissions in modern automobiles, lightweight design is more of a challenge than ever in automotive engineering. Materials development plays an important role against this background, since significant weight decrease is made possible through the substitution of high density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters to the functional requirements of components. Reinforced light metals, therefore, offer a promising approach due to their high strength to weight ratio. The paper gives an overview on matrix and reinforcement structures suited for the high volume output of the automotive industry. Further analytical and numerical approaches to describe the strengthening effects and the good mechanical characteristics of these composite materials are presented.
Technical Paper

On Various Aspects of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on Cars Under Crosswind Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1548
Currently, the aerodynamic development of a car concentrates on steady state aerodynamic forces. Development is mainly performed in wind tunnels with very low turbulence. On the road we find other boundary conditions. Natural wind, other cars and trucks influence the yawing moment and the side force. During acceleration and deceleration the vehicle speed is not constant, the effect of unsteady aerodynamic forces is especially important and can not be neglected. The approach to measure unsteady effects is to use a wind tunnel that has the capability to produce unsteady flow and in addition to instrument a car to drive under natural windy conditions. The wind tunnel, with its reproducible conditions, allows measurements to be made with well defined frequencies of the approaching flow. This is important since the aerodynamic forces are not sensitive to all frequencies in the same way. One way to increase driving comfort is to reduce these forces at specific frequencies.
Technical Paper

BMW High Precision Fuel Injectionin Conjunction with Twin-Turbo Technology: a Combination for Maximum Dynamic and High Fuel Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-1560
The new inline six cylinder Twin-Turbo gasoline engine forms the pinnacle of BMW's wide range of straight-six power units, developing maximum output of 300hp and a peak torque of 300 lb-ft with a displacement of 3.0 litre. Using two turbochargers in combination with the new BMW High Precision Fuel Injection leads to a responsive build-up of torque and to an impressive development of power over a wide engine speed range. This paper gives a detailed overview of the turbocharger-and the injection system and describes the effect of both systems on power and torque, as well as on fuel consumption and emission. The big advantage of using two small turbochargers is their low moment of inertia, even the slightest movement of the accelerator pedal by the driver's foot serving to immediately build up superior pressure and power. This puts an end to the turbo “gap” previously typical of a turbocharged power unit.
Technical Paper

Advanced Driver Assistance: Chances and Limitations on the Way to Improved Active Safety

2007-04-16
2007-01-1738
Advanced Driver Assistance systems support the driver in his driving tasks. They can be designed to enhance the driver's performance and/or to take over unpleasant tasks from the driver. An important optimization goal is to maintain the driver's activation at a moderate level, avoiding both stress and boredom. Functions requiring a situational interpretation based on the vehicle environment are associated with lower performance reliability than typical stability control systems. Thus, driver assistance systems are designed assuming that drivers will monitor the assistance function while maintaining full control over the vehicle, including the opportunity to override as required. Advanced driver assistance systems have a substantial potential to increase active safety performance of the vehicle, i.e., to mitigate or avoid traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Underbody Windnoise Sources on a Production Vehicle using a Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

2007-05-15
2007-01-2400
A computational analysis of underbody windnoise sources on a production automobile at 180 km/h free stream air speed and 0° yaw is presented. Two different underbody geometry configurations were considered for this study. The numerical results have been obtained using the commercial software PowerFLOW. The simulation kernel of this software is based on the numerical scheme known as the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with a two-equation RNG turbulence model. This scheme accurately captures time-dependent aerodynamic behavior of turbulent flows over complex detailed geometries, including the pressure fluctuations causing wind noise. Comparison of pressure fluctuations levels mapped on a fluid plane below the underbody shows very good correlation between experiment and simulation. Detailed flow analysis was done for both configurations to obtain insight into the transient nature of the flow field in the underbody region.
Technical Paper

Advanced material technologies meeting the challenges of automotive engineering

2000-06-12
2000-05-0049
Advanced material technologies play a key role in automotive engineering. The main objective of the development of advanced material technologies for automotive applications is to promote the desired properties of a vehicle. It is characteristic of most materials in modern cars that they have been developed especially for automotive requirements. Requirements are not only set by the customer who expects the maximum in performance, comfort, reliability, and safety from a modern car. Existing legal regulations also have to be met, e.g., in the areas of environmental compatibility, resource preservation, and minimization of emissions. To achieve goals like weight reduction or increased engine performance permanent material developments are essential. In this paper, numerous examples chosen from body, suspension, and powertrain components show clearly how low weight technologies, better comfort, and high level of recyclability can be achieved by advanced material solutions.
Technical Paper

New Design of Ultra High Cell Density Metal Substrates

2002-03-04
2002-01-0353
To meet the most stringent emissions standards such as Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) in California, substrates with high cell densities and ultra thin foils are needed, mounted in a close-coupled position. A new substrate design has been developed incorporating increased thermal and mechanical load in association with reduced thermal mass and improved heat transfer due to higher cell density. This paper describes the development of the new design using finite element calculation and practical test results from component and engine test benches.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

2007-04-16
2007-01-1092
In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

CAE Driven Passive Safety Development for a Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)

2000-12-01
2000-01-3320
Sport Activity Vehicle (SAV) share a growing market of an entirely new class of vehicles. Outstanding comfort in traditional on-road and also off-road terrain combined with leading edge technology are basic features of this concept. But in addition to that, the SAV has to offer the same overall safety features, expected by e.g. a luxury-segment sedan. A way to ensure the BMW X5 becoming one of the safest cars was the consequent use of simulation techniques in passive safety development. This paper deals with introduction of a CAE driven development process for passive safety in the BMW X5 project, focusing on examples in front and side impact.
Technical Paper

Needs and Possibilities for the Correction of Drag and Lift Wheel Forces which have been Derived by Integrating its Static Pressure Distribution

2006-12-05
2006-01-3623
Knowing the wheel forces on a vehicle under various circumstances and configurations is essential for its aerodynamic development. This becomes crucial when dealing with a racing car. This was the driving force for the initial research conducted in the BMW Aerodynamics Department [1] concerning the aerodynamic forces of an isolated 1:2 racing wheel. The latter were determined for various arrangements with the use of a system equipped with pressure transducers distributed on the wheel surface. While the pressure wheel is adequate for revealing flow structures surrounding it as well as highlighting its physics, it is nevertheless insufficient for the prediction of the wheel forces with high accuracy. As will be shown, this is mainly the consequence of the absent contribution of skin friction, the mathematical method engaged in post–processing and the restricted number of pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - Exploitation of a Standard and Future Prospects

2006-10-16
2006-21-0039
The BMW Group is the first car manufacturer introducing FlexRay in series projects. Start of production is September 2006, where a pilot application is implemented in the chassis domain of the new BMW X5. In 2008 FlexRay will form a substantial part of the overall electronics architecture in form of a FlexRay network connecting multiple ECUs implementing chassis, powertrain, and driver assistance applications.
Technical Paper

Transportation Fuels for the Future

2006-10-16
2006-21-0089
This paper analyzes the availability of fossil resources and the projected demand development for transport energy. A continuation of current trends would lead to a gap between fuel supply and demand in 10 to 15 years from now. Based on the 3 political key criteria (security of energy supply, greenhouse gas emission reductions, strengthening of the economy) potential alternative fuels are screened and analyzed according to their contributions towards these political goals. A scenario for the development of future fuels is presented.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Analysis of CO2-Reduction by an Optimized Heat Supply during Vehicle Warm-up

2006-04-03
2006-01-1450
A transient 1D-network simulation model of the relevant power train components and fluid circuits of a state-of-the art passenger car has been developed, including engine, gearbox, coolant, motor oil and gearbox oil circuit. A system analysis was conducted to identify the subsystems of the vehicle where thermal intervention was expected to have major influence on fuel consumption during warm-up. Variable heat flows have been applied to those subsystems in the simulation model and their influence on the NEDC fuel consumption has been evaluated. The results show the potential fuel reduction effects of heat management measures on the respective system components with a special emphasis on the component interaction. A sensitivity study of variable heat distribution among the subsystems of the vehicle shows the optimization potentials of heat management measures. The results from the numerical simulation have been validated in an experimental setup.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Process for Virtual Evaluation of the Dimensional Resistance of Interior Parts

2006-04-03
2006-01-1475
The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
Technical Paper

Predicting Overall Seating Discomfort Based on Body Area Ratings

2007-04-16
2007-01-0346
For car manufacturers, seating comfort is becoming more and more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. There is a simultaneous demand for shorter development times and more comfortable seats. Comfort in automobile seats is a multi-dimensional and complex problem. Many current sophisticated measuring tools were consulted, but it is unclear on which factors one should concentrate attention when measuring comfort. The goal of this paper is to find a model in order to predict the overall seating discomfort based on body area ratings. Besides micro climate, the pressure distribution appears to be the most objective measure comprising with the clearest association with the subjective ratings. Therefore an analysis with three different test series was designed, allowing the variation of pressure on the seat surface. In parallel the subjects were asked to judge the local and the overall sensation.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Virtual Testing Approach in Vehicle Passive Safety Design: Effect of Scatter on Injury Response

2005-04-11
2005-01-1763
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
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