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Technical Paper

New ways of fluid flow control in automobiles: Experience with exhaust gas aftertreatmetn control

Flow control by fluidic devices - without moving parts - offers advantages of reliability and low cost. As an example of their automobile application based on authors'' long-time experience the paper describes a fluidic valve for switching exhaust gas flow in a NOx absorber into a by-pass during regeneration phase. The unique feature here is the fluidic valve being of monostable and of axisymmetric design, integrated into the absorber body. After development in aerodynamic laboratory, the final design was tested on engine test stand and finally in a car. This proved that the performance under high temperature and pulsation existing in exhaust systems is reliable and promising. Fluidic valves require, however, close matching with aerodynamic load. To optimize the exhaust system layout for the whole load-speed range and reaching minimum counter- pressure, both the components of exhaust system and control strategy have to be properly adopted.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

BMW High Precision Fuel Injectionin Conjunction with Twin-Turbo Technology: a Combination for Maximum Dynamic and High Fuel Efficiency

The new inline six cylinder Twin-Turbo gasoline engine forms the pinnacle of BMW's wide range of straight-six power units, developing maximum output of 300hp and a peak torque of 300 lb-ft with a displacement of 3.0 litre. Using two turbochargers in combination with the new BMW High Precision Fuel Injection leads to a responsive build-up of torque and to an impressive development of power over a wide engine speed range. This paper gives a detailed overview of the turbocharger-and the injection system and describes the effect of both systems on power and torque, as well as on fuel consumption and emission. The big advantage of using two small turbochargers is their low moment of inertia, even the slightest movement of the accelerator pedal by the driver's foot serving to immediately build up superior pressure and power. This puts an end to the turbo “gap” previously typical of a turbocharged power unit.
Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

Measuring Near Zero Automotive Exhaust Emissions - Zero Is a Very Small Precise Number

In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
Technical Paper

NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases

The NO formation is essentially determined by the flame temperature. In an engine the latter depends on the composition of the fuel and the intake gas. In this study the efficiency of various NO reducing measures is analysed by means of a comparison of measurements and computations for the Most frequent operation point of a 1.9 1 DI Diesel engine. The O2 concentration, which is shown to be the dominant source of influence on the flame temperature and NO formation, is varied using synthetic gas mixtures or by EGR. The molar heat capacity of CO2 and H2O in the recirculated exhaust gas, the intake temperature and the H/C ratio in the fuel are less important for the formation of NO. Measures which reduce the NO formation increase the ignition delay and thereby the fraction of the premixed combustion. The impact of EGR on the combustion process is illustrated by high speed filming.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Enhanced VALVETRONIC Technology for Meeting SULEV Emission Requirements

BMW VALVETRONIC technology is able to maintain the most important measures to reduce emissions. The further optimized charge movement created by VALVETRONIC stabilizes the combustion in the catalyst heating mode with extremely retarded ignition timing. When the engine is warm the high residual gas tolerance ensures very low Engine-Out NOx emissions and at the same time a low level of hydrocarbons. The atomization of fuel droplets due to high flow velocity in the valve gap area leads to improved mixture formation and reduced wall wetting. Engine-Out HC emissions in a cold engine are therefore reduced. Combined, the emission measures achieve robust and efficient emission control. In combination with additional after-treatment like secondary air system and catalysts using high cell density VALVETRONIC engines form an excellent base for SULEV emission regulations without neglecting the typical BMW claim of efficient dynamics.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition on NMOG-Emissions and Ozone Forming Potential

VOLKSWAGEN has conducted a number of investigations on a Multi Fuel Vehicle (MFV), designed for variable fuel operation, to determine the influence of fuel composition and clean fuels on exhaust emissions, mainly on ozone forming potential. Results of the tests indicate a small advantage of Phase II Reformulated Gasoline and a greater one for for methanol fuel M85, compared to today's gasoline. For M85 there is an about 25 % lower ozone forming potential. The most critical components in the exhaust of methanol fueled vehicles (M85) are unburned methanol and formaldehyde, forming more than 60 % of the total ozone forming potential. Therefore improvement of cold start and warmup driving during the first two to three minutes is of great importance, because in this time about 90 % of the mentioned components are formed.
Technical Paper

Catalytic NOx Reduction in Net Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

Several different possibilities will be described and discussed on the processes of reducing NOx in lean-burn gasoline and diesel engines. In-company studies were conducted on zeolitic catalysts. With lean-burn spark-ignition engines, hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas act as a reducing agent. In stationary conditions at λ = 1.2, NOx conversion rates of approx. 45 % were achieved. With diesel engines, the only promising variant is SCR technology using urea as a reducing agent. The remaining problems are still the low space velocity and the narrow temperature window of the catalyst. The production of reaction products and secondary reactions of urea with other components in the diesel exhaust gas are still unclarified.
Technical Paper

Fuel/Air-Ratio Measurements in Direct Injection Gasoline Sprays Using 1D Raman Scattering

One dimensional Spontaneous Raman Scattering measurements (RS) have been performed in a spray (standard gasoline, one-component and multi-component model fuels) which was operated in a high-temperature, high-pressure chamber, so that realistic engine conditions have been simulated. The present work investigates under what conditions 1D-RS can be employed for fuel/air-ratio measurements in realistic DI gasoline sprays. The distance from the spray axis has been determined, til that, coming from the outside, quantitative Raman measurement are possible. The equivalence ratio has been quantified for the one component fuel close to the spray. It turns out that the measurement error depends strongly on the type of fuel. These problems are caused by the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) content of the fuel, which leads to interfering laser-induced fluorescence signals.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

New Physical and Chemical Models for the CFD Simulation of Exhaust Gas Lines: A Generic Approach

In the near future the effort on the development of exhaust gas treatment systems must be increased to meet the stringent emission requirements. If the relevant physical and chemical models are available, the numerical simulation is an important tool for the design of these systems. This work presents a CFD model that allows to cover the full range of applications in this area. After a detailed presentation of the theoretical background and the modeling strategies results for the simulation of a close-coupled catalyst are shown. The presented model is also applied to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides, to a diesel particle filter and a fuel-cell reformer catalyst.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components of Modern Diesel Passenger Cars

In this paper the emissions of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components of a fleet of diesel passenger cars measured at Volkswagen in the eighties are compared with the results of a new investigation on modern direct-injection diesel vehicles. The potential of improved diesel fuels to reduce emissions is also examined. The emissions of regulated exhaust gas components as well as fuel consumption have been reduced significantly in the last years as a result of the systematic further development of conventional swirl chamber engines and exhaust gas after-treatment as well as the introduction of SDI/TDI engines. As was to be expected, this has also had a positive effect on the emissions of unregulated exhaust gas components. It has been possible, for example, to reduce the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on diesel particulates by more than 95%.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.