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Journal Article

Coking Phenomena in Nozzle Orifices of Dl-Diesel Engines

Within a public founded project test cell investigations were undertaken to identify parameters which predominantly influence the development of critical deposits in injection nozzles. A medium-duty diesel engine was operated in two different coking cycles with a zinc-free lubricant. One of the cycles is dominated by rated power, while the second includes a wide area of the operation range. During the experiments the temperatures at the nozzle tip, the geometries of the nozzle orifice and fuel properties were varied. For a detailed analysis of the deposits methods of electron microscopy were deployed. In the course of the project optical access to all areas in the nozzle was achieved. The experiments were evaluated by means of the monitoring of power output and fuel flow at rated power. The usage of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and a TEM (transmission electron microscope) revealed images of the deposits with a magnification of up to 160 000.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Combusting Split-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
Technical Paper

Method for Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Content of Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units

Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to their high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are the major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
Technical Paper

Automation of Road Vehicles Using V2X: An Application to Intersection Automation

Today, automated vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, we are currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X-based applications based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC). Moreover, the novel application intersection priority management (IPM) is part of the research project. IPM aims at automating intersections in such a way that vehicles can pass safely and even more efficiently without the use of traffic lights or signs.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity Measurements in Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions by Laser Flow Tagging

The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.