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The System Integration Process for Accelerated Development

2002-10-31
System Integration Process for Accelerated Development explains how the integration of simultaneous engineering processes into the higher-level strategic business process can help accelerate the conversion of an idea into a finished product, resulting in a competitive advantage.
Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

FordS Zero Emission P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C046
The P2000 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle developed by Ford Motor Company is the first full-performance, full-size passenger fuel cell vehicle in the world. This development process has resulted in a vehicle with performance that matches some of today's vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The powertrain in Ford's P2000 FCEV lightweight aluminum vehicle consists of an Ecostar electric motor/transaxle and a fuel cell system developed with XCELLSiS-The Fuel Cell Engine Company (formerly dbb Fuel Cell Engines, Inc.). Ballard's Mark 700 series fuel cell stack is a main component in the fuel cell system. To support this new FCEV, Ford has constructed the first North American hydrogen refueling station capable of dispensing gaseous and liquid hydrogen. On-going research and development is progressing to optimize fuel cell vehicle performance and refueling techniques.
Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

2000-06-12
2000-05-0058
The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Computer Animation of the Crash Victim

1964-10-21
640842
A computer program was written to take the crash dynamics sequence obtained from a computer-simulation model, and “draw” the corresponding animated manikin on the computer cathode-ray tube. The series of momentary solutions is repeatedly photographed on 16 mm film and then projected at movie speed. The result is a “slow-motion” animation showing the motions of the simulated victim during the crash sequence.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly and Low Cost Manufacturing – Implementation of MQL Machining (Minimum Quantity Lubrication)

2007-04-16
2007-01-1338
Near Dry or Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Machining eliminates conventional flood coolant from the machining processes. In doing so, MQL reduces oil mist generation, biological contamination of coolant, waste water volume, costs for capital equipment and regulatory permitting. MQL also improves recycling and transport of coolant contaminated chips [1]. Although MQL machining technology has several advantages compared to wet machining, widespread implementation will require a paradigm shift among end-users, machine suppliers, and cutting tool suppliers. Successful implementation of MQL machining requires a high technical understanding and a solid infrastructure to support maintenance and on-going continuous improvement [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Validation and Dynamic Analysis of Diesel Pushrod Overhead Bridged Valve Train

2007-04-16
2007-01-1256
A bridged valve train configuration exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the uniqueness of the special elephant foot/bridge/valve structure. Consequently, this system arrangement presents significant design challenges in system stability at high speed, high load, wear, no-follow and valve seating velocity, etc. An efficient way to gain a thorough understanding of the behavior of this type of valve train system and to drive the valve train design improvement is through the use of an effective dynamic simulation tool. In this paper, an advanced CAE tool developed by Ford Motor Company for the bridged type valve train simulations has been described. This automated CAE tool provides a complete virtual ADAMS-based simulation environment for the pushrod bridged valve train system analysis. This paper also presents the correlation and validation between the simulations and the measurements. The design analysis for the bridged valve train has been discussed briefly in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Heat Load Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1196
The objective of this paper is to describe a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) model and its applications for A/C system development at early design stages. This CAE tool calculates the heat load of the vehicle passenger compartment with considerations of solar radiation, conductive/convective heat transfer through the body shell, and any passengers present in the vehicle. A data bank of 6 glass types, 9 surface finishes and 15 material properties are available to increase simulation flexibility. This heat load model can be used as a stand alone tool to calculate the steady-state thermal load of the passenger compartment under users' pre-defined conditions. When interfaced with an A/C refrigerant subsystem model, this integrated CAE tool is capable of evaluating the impacts on A/C system performance when body structures and/or operating conditions are changed.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-1128
The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic & Ford New FWD Six-Speed Automatic Transmission Family

2007-04-16
2007-01-1095
The Hydra-Matic 6T70 is General Motors first model of a new, two-variant front wheel drive (FWD) six speed automatic transmission family. The second variant is a higher capacity model, the 6T75. The transmission was co-developed with Ford Motor Company. The 6F50 is the Ford variant that aligns with the GM 6T70 transmission. Approximately eighty five percent of the hardware is shared or common between the GM and Ford transmission variants. Ford will also have a higher capacity variant the 6F55 to align with the GM 6T75. The first GM application is the Saturn Aura for the 2007 Model Year. The Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX in MY 2007 will be the first applications for the 6F50. While the Hydra-Matic and Ford FWD six-speed family was designed with two variants in mind, the designed in modularity requires only changes to the second and third axis and case housings depending on specific torque requirements. This modular design enables a tremendous amount of part sharing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Rapid Fuel Injector Re-Pressurization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1075
A fuel system design objective is to have the fuel injection pressure at target pressure by the time of the first injection. In most cases, a vapor and air space forms in the highest and hottest part of the fuel injector supply as the fuel system cools following engine-off. Upon key-on, the fuel pump needs to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air before fuel pressure can build thus delaying fuel injector re-pressurization. An inventive solution to speed re-pressurization is described. It effectively eliminates the need to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air in the first few tenths of seconds of fuel injection re-pressurization. The factors that affect fuel injection re-pressurization time are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Platinum and Rhodium on the Functional Properties of a Lean NOx Trap

2007-04-16
2007-01-1055
A laboratory study was performed to assess the contributions of platinum and rhodium to the emissions performance of a lean NOx trap. Samples of a barium-only formulation were obtained with either 0.84 g/L of platinum, 0.51 g/L of rhodium, or 1.0 g/L of platinum and rhodium in ratios of 1/0/1 or 5/0/1. 60 s lean/5 s rich tests were performed on fresh samples and samples that were aged on high temperature durability cycles. The results indicate that platinum is necessary for the NOx storage performance of the trap at low temperatures (e.g., 250°C), whereas rhodium is needed for the NOx reduction capability and consequently the purgability of the trap at low temperatures. As a result, the bimetallic Pt/Rh samples provided the best overall NOx conversion at low temperatures fresh and after aging.
Technical Paper

Simple, Closed-Form Expressions Relating Long-Term (Z score) and Short-Term (Defects per Opportunity) Variability

2007-04-16
2007-01-0993
A simple and accurate analytical expression relating the expected process (long term) and sampling (short-term) product variability is developed using a variational mathematical principle. Of the several complex functional forms discovered, simplicity and ease of use are used to select an expression providing the most reliable estimation for and convenient expression of Z score (σ level) as a function of defects per opportunity (DPO) or per million opportunities (DPMO). In the absence of scientific calculators or computers, this expression allows engineers to accurately estimate long term process variability to within 0.01 of its true value without resulting to (laborious) tables or a computer. Also, a high precision approximation is provided for cases when DPO is less than 1% which estimates Z-score to within 0.003 of the actual value (at 6σ).
Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

2007-04-16
2007-01-1768
Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1770
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
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