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Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing and Field Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

Currently the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) exclusively uses potassium acetate (KAc)-based runway deicing fluids (RDFs) to deice and anti-ice military runways and taxiways. Commercial airports predominantly use KAc, but some also use RDFs composed of KAc plus propylene glycol (PG) or urea plus PG. Conventional RDFs have environmental concerns due to toxicity as well as material compatibility problems such as corrosion of aircraft carbon brake-pad components, cadmium-plated landing gear, and airfield lighting fixtures. Under the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Battelle tested a series of patented - bio-based RDFs to address these issues. Tests showed that the Battelle RDFs met the mandatory Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) 1435 requirements. These new RDFs have reduced ecotoxicity compared to currently used RDFs and are compliant with all other environmental requirements.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Research Issues for the Integration of ITS Devices

This paper summarizes the activities and results of a preliminary human factors review for the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Program. The objective of the project was to identify human factors work that needs to be done early in the life cycle of the IVI program to ensure safe and well-engineered vehicles. This project was comprised of two major subtasks. Subtask 1 provided for a “Preliminary IVI Human Factors Technology Workshop” to draw together the stakeholders in the IVI program and define the technologies and the human factors issues that should be considered in developing an IVI. Subtask 2 investigated the preliminary infrastructure and human factors in-vehicle requirements for alternative candidate configurations of an IVI.
Technical Paper

Estimating Safety Benefits for the IVI Generation 0 Field Operational Tests

The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) established the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Generation 0 Field Operational Tests (FOT) to demonstrate the effectiveness and encourage the deployment of intelligent vehicle safety systems (IVSS). This paper presents a methodology for estimating potential safety benefits of IVSS from such FOTs. The metric chosen is potential reduction in number of crashes resulting from widespread deployment of the IVSS. The methodology is based on the approach developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Federal Highway Administration, and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. New features of the methodology include rigorous estimates of crash probabilities combining analytical models with FOT data and detailed investigation of the variability associated with benefits estimates. Although millions of miles will be driven in the IVI Generation 0 FOTs, few crashes are anticipated.