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Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9008
In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu

2017-03-28
2017-01-1200
Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

2017-06-05
2017-01-1869
During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices Low Frequency Acoustic Modeling of the Intake System of a Turbocharged Engine

2017-06-05
2017-01-1794
As regulations become increasingly stringent and customer expectations of vehicle refinement increase, the accurate control and prediction of induction system airborne acoustics are a critical factor in creating a vehicle that wins in the marketplace. The goal of this project was to improve the predicative accuracy of a 1-D GT-power engine and induction model and to update internal best practices for modeling. The paper will explore the details of an induction focused correlation project that was performed on a spark ignition turbocharged inline four-cylinder engine. This paper and SAE paper “Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices” share similar abstracts and introductions; however, they were split for readability and to keep the focus on a single a single subsystem. This paper compares 1D GT-Power engine air induction system (AIS) sound predictions with chassis dyno experimental measurements during a fixed gear, full-load speed sweep.
Technical Paper

Self-Certification Requirements for Adaptive Driving Beam Headlamps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1365
Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

2017-06-05
2017-01-1755
Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

System Engineering for Automated Software Update of Automotive Electronics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0750
In traditional automotive electronic design, software update has been a component oriented, manual process rather than a systematic designed in capability suitable for automation. In recent days as software content in vehicles grow, the need to update software in vehicles more frequently is becoming a necessity. Moreover, additional attributes for software updates, for example timely delivery of security related update for vehicles, desire to add features using software update, control cost of software updates, etc., requires a system engineered design rather than a component oriented approach. As the automobile domain utilizes various means of mobility (Combustion Engine, Hybrid, Battery, etc.) and various functional domains (Infotainment, Safety, Mobility, Telematics, ADAS (Advance Driving Assist service), Autonomous, etc.), to control the overall cost of future software update for such a diverse environment, it is beneficial to introduce automation in the software update process.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Learning Gasoline Direct Injector Dynamics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2018-04-03
2018-01-0863
In today’s race for improved fuel economy and lower emissions from gasoline engines, precise metering of delivered fuel is essential. Gasoline Direct Injection fuel systems provide the means for improved combustion efficiency through mixture preparation and better atomization. These improvements can be achieved from both increasing fuel pressure and using multiple injection events, which significantly reduce the required energizing time per injection, and in a number of cases, force the injector to operate at less than full stroke. When the injector operates in this condition, the influence of variation in injector dynamics account for a large percentage of the delivered fuel and require compensation to ensure accurate fuel delivery. Injector dynamics such as opening delay and closing time are influenced by operating conditions such as fuel pressure, energizing time, and temperature.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Trivial Principal Component Regression (TPCR)

2019-04-02
2019-01-0515
Understanding a system behavior involves developing an accurate relationship between the explanatory (predictive) variables and the output response. When the observed data is ill-conditioned with potential collinear correlations among the measured variables, some of the statistical methods such as least squared method (LSM) fail to generate good predictive models. In those situations, other methods like Principal Component Regression (PCR) are generally applicable. Additionally, the PCR reduces the dimensionality of the system by making use of covariance relationship among the variables. In this paper, an improved regression method over PCR is proposed, which is based on the Trivial Principal Components (TPC). The TPC regression (TPCR) makes use of the covariance of the output response and predictive variables while extracting principal components. A new method of selecting potential principal components for variable reduction in TPCR is also proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

A System Safety Perspective into Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving

2019-04-02
2019-01-0133
The Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving feature is a new electrification propulsion enhancement that allows the driver to accelerate, decelerate and hold their vehicle stationary by just using the accelerator pedal. With this new feature, the driver is relieved of having to switch between pressing the accelerator pedal and brake pedal to slow, stop and hold the vehicle stationary. While this feature provides a convenience to the driver, it also presents a paradigm shift in driver engagement and control system responsibility for executing certain functions that the driver was traditionally responsible to perform. Various system safety techniques were involved in the development of such a feature both from a traditional functional safety perspective as well as a Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) perspective.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of V2V Reception Cadence- A New Metric for System Level Performance Analysis

2019-01-16
2019-01-0102
Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication is a prominent solution for active safety collision avoidance and for providing autonomous vehicles Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) capabilities. For safety purposes, it is essential the V2X technology would support communication between all road users, e.g., Vehicles (V2V), pedestrians (V2P) and road infrastructure (V2I). Hence, the efficiency of a V2V communication solution should be evaluated through system level performance. In addition, the examined performance metrics need to reflect safety related properties. Metrics as Packet Reception Ratio (PRR) and transmission latencies, which are commonly used to assess V2X system’s functionality, aren’t enough since reception latencies are overlooked. The latter is crucial in ensuring messages would reach their destination on time to avoid hazardous incidents. The reception cadence may be much lower than this of the transmission due to various phenomenon (e.g. channel congestion).
Technical Paper

Aero-Engine Inlet Vane Structure Optimization for Anti-Icing with Hot Air Film Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

2019-06-10
2019-01-2021
An improved anti-icing design with film heating ejection slot and cover for the inlet part of aero-engine was brought out, which combines the interior jet impingement with the exterior hot air film heating and shows promising application for those parts manufactured with composite materials. A hybrid method based on the combination of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to optimize the anti-icing design for a typical aero-engine inlet vane in two dimensions. The optimization aims to maximize the heating performance of the hot air film, which is assessed by the heating effectiveness. The film-heating ejection angle and the cover opening angle are the two geometric variables to be optimized. Numerical model was established and validated to generate training and testing samples for BPNN, which was used to predict the objective function and find the optimal design variables in conjunction with the GA.
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