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Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

2004-03-08
2004-01-1107
Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

Research on the UML-based Modeling of Embedded Software for Diesel Engine Control System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0135
The method and steps for software modeling of the embedded control systems for diesel engine based on UML are described in this paper. In order to meet the software function and the features of the system, object-oriented modeling for diesel engine embedded control software system has been implemented. Requirements are depicted by use case diagram and the logic structure is depicted by class diagram. According to the domain knowledge and the class diagram, the sequence diagram and state diagram are developed to describe the dynamic behavior of the system. The level of software development has been enhanced to the system level by software modeling. It focuses on the automotive field, and can be easy to grasp the problem from the overall perspective and discover software design problems at the early stage. It is also convenient to solve the problems caused by the change of requirements. The model has an excellent flexibility so that it can be applied to different software platforms.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Design and Application of the ECU Application Software Components Library for Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-0193
Based on MATLAB/Simulink, the ECU application software components library for diesel engine has been designed in this paper. The hierarchic and modularized components library is an open research platform for the model-based control software development. Using the components technology, the requirements of the diesel engine ECU application software have been analyzed, upon which the detailed components partition and the components library design have been accomplished. Besides, based on this components library, a control prototype for the diesel engine has been established quickly and verified through the Hardware-in-the-Loop test. The ECU software design and test process based on the components library show a good flexibility of the library, and it can improve the configurability and reusability of the software and increase the efficiency of the control software development.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Estimating Ozone Potential of Pipe-out Emissions from Euro-3 to Euro-5 Passenger Cars Fueled with Gasoline, Alcohol-Gasoline, Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas

2016-04-05
2016-01-1009
Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0432
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Engines Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2199
Turbocharged and intercooled DI engines, fueled with different blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on dynamometers. The properties of the test fuels were tested. The cylinder pressure and fuel injection pressure signals were recorded and combustion analysis was conducted. The engine exhaust emissions were measured. The results of the study indicated that HC, CO, PM and smoke emissions improvement was obtained. But there was an increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission, and a slight drop in power with the blends. The combustion analysis showed that biodiesel had a shorter ignition delay and a lower premixed combustion amount, but had an early start of injection caused by the fuel properties. The relationship between combustion and emissions was discussed.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Pure Electric Bus Jointly Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery and Ultra Capacitor

2004-03-08
2004-01-0368
The paper presents the design and analysis of pure electric bus powered by Lithium-ion battery and ultra capacitor. For the limited power energy of battery, the ultra capacitor pack is chosen as the auxiliary on-board energy storage device. The system configuration, system modeling and on-road test result analysis will be covered in the paper and the possibility of using ultra capacitors on electric bus to improve the economical efficiency in urban areas will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Turning Control and Analysis for a Tracked Vehicle with Electric Transmission System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1592
How to control and analyze the turning process of a tracked vehicle with electric transmission system is an important issue. In the paper two turning control methods are presented according to its study. The balance relations of its tractive effort and power versus radius are obtained by the calculation with using the mathematical model of basic turning dynamics and constraint conditions. The model of continuously variable radius turning is implemented by a RBF neural network which is of the better identifying ability, and the more turning results can be given from it. These turning analyses are significant for the electric transmission system.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

One-dimensional Simulation Study on the Rule of Several-parameter Matching for the Performance of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1696
One-dimensional combustion performance of a turbocharged V-type eight-cylinder diesel engine was computed by used of WAVE code. The parameters of compress ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, fuel injection quantity, advance angle of injection, fuel injection rate and fuel injection duration were changed so as to study quantificationally how these parameters affect the power, fuel consume, the max combustion pressure, exhaust temperature and emission of the diesel engine. The computational results could help to accomplish the preliminary optimization of several parameters for combustion matching and supplement experimental experience and exploit new products.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine with Finite Element Method based on Contact Calculation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1583
Contact dynamic characteristics of an internal combustion engine structure were studied by the finite element method and experimental verification. Based on theoretical analysis, contact modal calculation of an internal-combustion engine with finite element method is carried out by the ADINA software. Dynamic behavior of the entire engine structure was investigated. Rigid bar connection and coupling connection were introduced for the purpose of comparison with contact analysis and experiment results. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and FEM results. From the study, it can be demonstrated that dynamic behavior of the engine structure with a large preload shows linear characteristics. Compared with the other models, the procedure presented in this paper is more effective and useful in view of operational time and experience of analysts.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Removing PM and NOX Simultaneously from Diesel Exhaust

2008-06-23
2008-01-1793
In order to achieve simultaneous removal of particulate matters (PM) and NOX in diesel exhaust, a new kind of aftertreatment prototype has been developed. The prototype combined effects of static, cyclone, non-thermal plasma and hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction. Experiments have been carried out with standard gases simulating diesel exhaust. Physical and chemical effects that took place in the prototype are as follows: the collection of PM by electrostatic-cyclone system, the oxidative combustion of PM, the selective catalytic reduction of NOX, and the reaction between PM and NOX. The effect of non-thermal plasma makes the density of NO decrease and that of NO2 increase, whereas, the amount of NOX remains the same. Employing catalyst coupled with non-thermal plasma debase the temperature by about 50◻, there the peak value of transform rate appears.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Turbocharged Diesel Engines Transient Combustion Using Neural Networks

2014-04-01
2014-01-1093
Study and modeling of diesel combustion during transient operations is an important scientific objective. This is partially due to the fact that emissions under transient operations have aroused increasing attention by control groups during recent decades. The objective of this paper is to develop a combustion model to predict the peculiarities of transient combustion for developing and testing control strategies. To by-pass the complicated principles of transient combustion, the Neural Networks are applied to link the coefficients in an empirical combustion model with engine operating parameters. Finally, the Neural Networks combustion model would not only reflect the influence of turbocharge lag on combustion process during transient event, which cannot be predicted by its interpolation alternative, but also shown great potential for analyzing combustion characteristics during load increase transient event or other transient operations.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Adaptability of Three Way Catalytic Converter under Hydrogen-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Alternate Working Mode

2014-04-01
2014-01-1342
Nowadays, the world is facing severe energy crisis and environment problems. Development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is one of the best ways to solve these problems. Due to the difficulties of infrastructures, such as the hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen fuel vehicles have not been widely used yet. As a result, Hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicle is a solution as a compromise. In this paper, three way catalytic converter (TWC) was used to reduce emissions of hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicles. On wide open throttle and load characteristics, the conversion efficiency of TWC in gasoline engine was measured. Then the TWC was connected to a hydrogen internal combustion engine. After switching the hydrogen and gasoline working mode, emission data was measured. Experiment results show that the efficiency of a traditional TWC can be maintained above 85%., while it works in a hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel alternative working mode.
Technical Paper

A Study of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine EGR System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1071
NOx are the only harmful emissions of hydrogen internal combustion engine. EGR is one of the effective methods to reduce NOx. The traditional EGR is not suitable for hydrogen internal combustion engine. Therefore, the study of influence of hot EGR on hydrogen internal combustion engine is important. A 2.0L hydrogen internal combustion engine with hot EGR system model is employed to optimize the diameter and position of hot EGR based on a simulation analysis. The result shows that both of the combustion temperature and NOx increase as EGR increases due to the rise of intake temperature for low load condition, for heavy load, with the increase of EGR rate, NOx emissions decreases slightly before the mixture equivalence ratio comes to 1and then dropped significantly after the mixture equivalence ratio greater than 1. Unburned hydrogen in TWC has the effect of reducing NOx after catalysts decrease largely.
Technical Paper

Regulated, Carbonyl Emissions and Particulate Matter from a Dual-Fuel Passenger Car Burning Neat Methanol and Gasoline

2015-04-14
2015-01-1082
As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
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