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Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0094
When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

A General Selection Method for the Compressor of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine with Turbocharger

2017-03-28
2017-01-1025
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier because it is characterized by a fast combustion velocity, a wide range of sources, and clean combustion products. A hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) with a turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of power density and control NOx. However, the selection of a H2ICE compressor with a turbocharger is very different from traditional engines because of gas fuel. Hydrogen as a gas fuel has the same volume as its cylinder and thus increases pressure and reduces the mass flow rate of air in cylinder for a port fuel injection-H2ICE (PFI-H2ICE). In this study, a general method involving a H2ICE with a turbocharger is proposed by considering the effect of hydrogen on cylinders. Using this method, we can calculate the turbocharged pressure ratio and mass flow rate of air based on the target power and general parameters. This method also provides a series of intake temperatures of air before calculation to improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

2010-04-12
2010-01-1224
Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Hydraulic Free Piston Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2149
In this paper the experiments of hydraulic free piston diesel engine is described. The experimental data were obtained from measurement instruments on the free piston diesel engine that has been developed by Beijing Institute of Technology [ 1 ]. This article discusses the influences of compression pressure, injection timing, and combustion process to the free piston diesel engine principle. The compression process experiment shows that the piston velocity, the compression ratio can be controlled by adjusting the compression pressure. With the increasing of the compression pressure, there is a growing a compression ratio and piston velocity. The study on injection timing shows that the injection timing impacts the cylinder pressure peak value and the pressure peak arrival time. The combustion process is quite different from the crankshaft engine because of the unique piston movement characteristics of the hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structural Acoustic Radiation for Compressor Considering Airflow Pulsed Load

2011-05-17
2011-01-1722
A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation on the Combustion Characteristics of Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1310
The combustion characteristics of gasoline-diesel dual-fuel in an electronic-controlled high pressure common rail optical engine were investigated under different diesel injection timings and gasoline/diesel ratios by a high-speed photography method. The experimental results show that the dual-fuel combustion process is influenced by diesel combustion and gasoline homogenous combustion, respectively, with bright yellow flames and blue flames observed in the combustion chamber. At a gasoline/diesel ratio of 0.91, the injection timing affects the ignition timing and combustion modes significantly. When the diesel injection timing is before −25° after top dead center (ATDC), advancing the injection timing tends to prolong the ignition delay and the gasoline-diesel dual-fuel combustion is similar to the pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion with a rapid single-stage heat release.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Adaptability of Three Way Catalytic Converter under Hydrogen-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Alternate Working Mode

2014-04-01
2014-01-1342
Nowadays, the world is facing severe energy crisis and environment problems. Development of hydrogen fuel vehicles is one of the best ways to solve these problems. Due to the difficulties of infrastructures, such as the hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen fuel vehicles have not been widely used yet. As a result, Hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicle is a solution as a compromise. In this paper, three way catalytic converter (TWC) was used to reduce emissions of hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel vehicles. On wide open throttle and load characteristics, the conversion efficiency of TWC in gasoline engine was measured. Then the TWC was connected to a hydrogen internal combustion engine. After switching the hydrogen and gasoline working mode, emission data was measured. Experiment results show that the efficiency of a traditional TWC can be maintained above 85%., while it works in a hydrogen-gasoline dual-fuel alternative working mode.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Dynamic on the Working Processes of an Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Folded-Cranktrain Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1628
An opposed-piston two-stroke folded-cranktrain diesel engine was studied in this paper. In order to achieve asymmetric scavenging, asymmetric angle between two crank throws were designed. However asymmetric crank-throw angle has direct effect on the piston dynamic, which affects engine performance. This paper investigated the characteristics of the piston dynamic on an opposed-piston two-stroke folded-cranktrain diesel engine; effects of the asymmetric angle on the piston displacement, velocity and acceleration were analyzed; further researches were done to studied the effect of piston dynamic on the gas exchange performance and in-cylinder performance. The results show that, larger asymmetric angle is positive for the scavenging efficiency but negative for combustion.
Technical Paper

Design and Performance Simulation of Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1638
In this paper, a new-type balanced opposed-piston folded-cranktrain (OPFC) two-stroke diesel engine is developed by Beijing Institute of Technology. OPFC has some potential advantages such as simple structure, good balance, compact, high power density and thermal efficiency. The structural feature of OPFC engine leads to the performance is different with the conventional engine. In order to study and verify the characteristics of this kind of engine, the folded-crank train dynamics, cylinders scavenging process and combustion process are investigated. The influence of parameters on the engine performance is investigated, includes the fuel injection timing, intake/exhaust port timing. In addition, the nozzle diameter is investigated as a main factor to affect the mixture and combustion process in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Test Bench for the Turbocharger Fatigue Life Based on the Self-Circulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0429
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Research on the Cylinder-by-cylinder Variations Detection and Control Algorithm of Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1644
The cylinder-by-cylinder variations have many bad impacts on the engine performance, such as increasing the engine speed fluctuation, enlarging the torsional vibration and noise. To deal with this problem, the impact mechanism of cylinder-by-cylinder variations on low order torsional vibration has been studied in this paper, and subsequently a new individual cylinder control strategy was designed by processing the instantaneous crankshaft rotation speed signal, detecting the cylinder-by-cylinder variation and using feed-back control. The acceleration characteristics of each cylinder in each engine cycle were compared with each other to extract the variation index. The feed-back control algorithm was based on the regulation of the fuel injection according to the detected variation level.
Technical Paper

Scheme Design and Performance Simulation of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1276
In this paper, a new-type balanced opposed-piston two-stroke (OP2S) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is developed by Beijing Institute of Technology. OP2S-GDI engine has some potential advantages such as simple structure, good balance, compact, high power density and thermal efficiency. The structural feature of OP2S-GDI engine leads to the performance difference compared with conventional engines. In order to study and verify the characteristics of this kind of engine, the dynamics characteristics and design scheme of opposed crank-connecting rod mechanism, in-cylinder scavenging process, mixture formation and combustion process are investigated. The influence of parameters on engine performance is investigated, including opposed-piston motion phase difference, intake and exhaust port timing, injection and ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional CFD Analysis of Semi-Direct Injection Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1018
In this paper, a new method for the driving of the hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE) is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system, which has a great influence on the engine dynamic performance. The purpose of this paper is to solve the key operation and control problems for HFPE to commix fuel with air. HFPE adopts two-stroke loop-scavenging and semi-direct injection. The semi-direct injection nozzle is located in the liner wall inside the main intake port, with the axes oriented towards the piston at the Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Different scavenging pressures and injection angles result in different impacts on the mixture of fuel and air in the cylinder. This study analyzes the changes of the combustion heat release rate by simulation.
Technical Paper

Design of Multitask Template for Diesel Engine Control Software Based on Real-Time Operating System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1633
A multi-task control template has been established for diesel engine control system in this paper. By analyzing the function requirements and control strategies of electronic diesel engine control system, the data flow diagram has been obtained. Based on the mechanisms and characteristics of the RTOS as well as the design methods of real-time system software, modules in data flow graph has been divided further. So that the multi-tasks of the control system have been drawn. Then each task's properties have been designed. Afterwards, every task and the embedded RTOS have been transplanted into Freescale MPC5554 microcontroller. After that the multi-tasks have been tested and optimized in a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS) system of dSPACE AUTOBOX. The results show good reusability and real-time performance and it can increase the efficiency of the diesel engine control software development.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Hydraulic Differential Drive Free-piston Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1300
The hydraulic free piston engine is a complex mechanical-electro-liquid system, in order to simplify the complex system of the single hydraulic free piston engine, a new method for the driving of hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. The structure and principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine are analyzed and the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and the hydraulic system working principle. In addition, the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Finally, the transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. Then we compare our results to the ones from the hydraulic free piston engine made by the company Innas.
Technical Paper

Design Approach and Dimensionless Analysis of a Differential Driving Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

2016-09-27
2016-01-8091
A new method for driving the hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. This method achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. Principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Then energy balance method is used to design the main parameters of the novel engine. High pressure and secondary high pressure of the hydraulic system are constrained by the combustion parameters and therefore parameters are analyzed. In order to verify the effectiveness of energy balance method, the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and engine working principle. The transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. In addition, the effectiveness of the simulation is proofed by dimensionless analysis. It indicates that energy balance method realizes the basic performance of hydraulic free piston engine.
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