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Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0094
When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

The Application of HSIC in Idle Speed Control of Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960330
This paper describes the application of Human Simulation Intelligent Control(HSIC) method to improve the idle speed performance of heavy-duty diesel engines on the basis of diesel engine electronic control system. The HSIC is a kind of intelligent control method which can be used without knowing the system's model and it can on line choose control models and it is also easy to be used under the condition of diesel engine electronic control system. In our system, we used electronic control system to control fuel quantity by double loop control of pump rack position and engine speed. From the experimental results, The engine minimum idle speed has been reduced from 800 rpm at first to 500 rpm, and the speed fluctuation have been reduced by 50 percent. From the system's design and test, the simplicity and efficiency of the HSIC control method were demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A General Selection Method for the Compressor of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine with Turbocharger

2017-03-28
2017-01-1025
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier because it is characterized by a fast combustion velocity, a wide range of sources, and clean combustion products. A hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) with a turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of power density and control NOx. However, the selection of a H2ICE compressor with a turbocharger is very different from traditional engines because of gas fuel. Hydrogen as a gas fuel has the same volume as its cylinder and thus increases pressure and reduces the mass flow rate of air in cylinder for a port fuel injection-H2ICE (PFI-H2ICE). In this study, a general method involving a H2ICE with a turbocharger is proposed by considering the effect of hydrogen on cylinders. Using this method, we can calculate the turbocharged pressure ratio and mass flow rate of air based on the target power and general parameters. This method also provides a series of intake temperatures of air before calculation to improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Observer for Nonlinear Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Coupled Lateral and Vertical Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0559
The study of vehicle state estimation performance especially on the aspect of observer-based control for improving vehicle ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since vehicle roll behavior with various road excitations act an important part of driving safety, how to accurately obtain vehicle state under various driving scenes are of great concern. However, previous researches seldom consider coupling relation between vehicle vertical and lateral response with steering input under various road excitation. To address this issue, comprehension analyses on vehicle roll state estimation with coupled input are present in this paper. A full-car nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is first created to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling dynamics.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

2010-04-12
2010-01-1224
Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Hydraulic Free Piston Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2149
In this paper the experiments of hydraulic free piston diesel engine is described. The experimental data were obtained from measurement instruments on the free piston diesel engine that has been developed by Beijing Institute of Technology [ 1 ]. This article discusses the influences of compression pressure, injection timing, and combustion process to the free piston diesel engine principle. The compression process experiment shows that the piston velocity, the compression ratio can be controlled by adjusting the compression pressure. With the increasing of the compression pressure, there is a growing a compression ratio and piston velocity. The study on injection timing shows that the injection timing impacts the cylinder pressure peak value and the pressure peak arrival time. The combustion process is quite different from the crankshaft engine because of the unique piston movement characteristics of the hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

One-dimensional Simulation Study on the Rule of Several-parameter Matching for the Performance of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1696
One-dimensional combustion performance of a turbocharged V-type eight-cylinder diesel engine was computed by used of WAVE code. The parameters of compress ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, fuel injection quantity, advance angle of injection, fuel injection rate and fuel injection duration were changed so as to study quantificationally how these parameters affect the power, fuel consume, the max combustion pressure, exhaust temperature and emission of the diesel engine. The computational results could help to accomplish the preliminary optimization of several parameters for combustion matching and supplement experimental experience and exploit new products.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine with Finite Element Method based on Contact Calculation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1583
Contact dynamic characteristics of an internal combustion engine structure were studied by the finite element method and experimental verification. Based on theoretical analysis, contact modal calculation of an internal-combustion engine with finite element method is carried out by the ADINA software. Dynamic behavior of the entire engine structure was investigated. Rigid bar connection and coupling connection were introduced for the purpose of comparison with contact analysis and experiment results. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and FEM results. From the study, it can be demonstrated that dynamic behavior of the engine structure with a large preload shows linear characteristics. Compared with the other models, the procedure presented in this paper is more effective and useful in view of operational time and experience of analysts.
Technical Paper

A Study of Calibration of Electronic-controlled Injector Employed in High Pressure Common Rail System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1742
In order to meet the need of high pressure common rail diesel engine, calibration for injection quantity and basic MAP of electronic-controlled injector are made. Combining with testing data, influencing factors for consistency and identity of injecting fuel in electronic-controlled injector are analyzed, in the condition of small quantity, controlled-pressure undulation quantity and injecting pulse revising are presented to achieve the respective demand. Primary basic map for common rail pressure and injecting fuel are fixed with alterable step method, and calibration of fuel quantity MAP is made on bench test. Finally test of electronic-controlled injector equipped in diesel engine is finished, testing result showed that calibration process and method are reasonable.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Removing PM and NOX Simultaneously from Diesel Exhaust

2008-06-23
2008-01-1793
In order to achieve simultaneous removal of particulate matters (PM) and NOX in diesel exhaust, a new kind of aftertreatment prototype has been developed. The prototype combined effects of static, cyclone, non-thermal plasma and hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction. Experiments have been carried out with standard gases simulating diesel exhaust. Physical and chemical effects that took place in the prototype are as follows: the collection of PM by electrostatic-cyclone system, the oxidative combustion of PM, the selective catalytic reduction of NOX, and the reaction between PM and NOX. The effect of non-thermal plasma makes the density of NO decrease and that of NO2 increase, whereas, the amount of NOX remains the same. Employing catalyst coupled with non-thermal plasma debase the temperature by about 50◻, there the peak value of transform rate appears.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structural Acoustic Radiation for Compressor Considering Airflow Pulsed Load

2011-05-17
2011-01-1722
A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation on the Combustion Characteristics of Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1310
The combustion characteristics of gasoline-diesel dual-fuel in an electronic-controlled high pressure common rail optical engine were investigated under different diesel injection timings and gasoline/diesel ratios by a high-speed photography method. The experimental results show that the dual-fuel combustion process is influenced by diesel combustion and gasoline homogenous combustion, respectively, with bright yellow flames and blue flames observed in the combustion chamber. At a gasoline/diesel ratio of 0.91, the injection timing affects the ignition timing and combustion modes significantly. When the diesel injection timing is before −25° after top dead center (ATDC), advancing the injection timing tends to prolong the ignition delay and the gasoline-diesel dual-fuel combustion is similar to the pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion with a rapid single-stage heat release.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Regulated Emissions and Particulate Matter of Gasoline/CNG Dual-Fuel Taxi Over New European Driving Cycle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1467
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is widely used as an alternative option in spark ignition engines because of its better fuel economy and in part cleaner emissions. To cope with the haze weather in Beijing, about 2000 gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxis are servicing on-road. According to the government's plan, the volume of alternative fuel and pure electric vehicle will be further increased in the future. Thus, it is necessary to conduct an evaluation on the effectiveness of alternative fuel on curbing vehicular emissions. This research examined the regulated emissions and particulate matter of gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxi over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emission tests in gasoline- and CNG-fuelled, cold- and warm-start modes were done for all five taxies. Test vehicles, Hyundai Elantra, are powered by 1.6L spark-ignited engines incorporated with 5-gear manual gearboxes.
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