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Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Research on the UML-based Modeling of Embedded Software for Diesel Engine Control System

The method and steps for software modeling of the embedded control systems for diesel engine based on UML are described in this paper. In order to meet the software function and the features of the system, object-oriented modeling for diesel engine embedded control software system has been implemented. Requirements are depicted by use case diagram and the logic structure is depicted by class diagram. According to the domain knowledge and the class diagram, the sequence diagram and state diagram are developed to describe the dynamic behavior of the system. The level of software development has been enhanced to the system level by software modeling. It focuses on the automotive field, and can be easy to grasp the problem from the overall perspective and discover software design problems at the early stage. It is also convenient to solve the problems caused by the change of requirements. The model has an excellent flexibility so that it can be applied to different software platforms.
Journal Article

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine at Idle at Various Altitudes

This present paper described an experimental study on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine at idle at different altitudes. Five altitudes ranging from 550m to up to 4500m were investigated. Combustion parameters including in-cylinder pressure and temperature, heat release, fuel mass burning and so forth, together with emission factors including CO, HC, NOx and PM were tested and analyzed. The result of on-board measurement manifested that in-cylinder pressure descended consistently with the rising of altitude, while both the maximum in-cylinder temperature and exhaust temperature ascended with the altitude. It was found that ignition delay was lengthened at higher altitude, but the combustion duration became shorter. The crank angle towards 90% fuel burnt has hardly changed with the variation of altitude. As for heat release, the difference of slopes observed at different altitudes was quite slight.
Technical Paper

NVH Improvement of Vehicle Powertrain

This paper provides an investigation to improve vehicle powertrain NVH performance via modification of excitation and radiation system of powertrain. First of all, considering different excitation mechanisms of the powertrain, the excitation forces are analyzed. The FEM/BEM coupled analysis and the acoustic transfer vector (ATV) calculation as well as panel contribution analysis are applied to investigating the acoustic characteristics of the powertrain. Then a hybrid approach which couples the transmission gear profile modification for attenuating gear system excitation and the transmission housing modification for reducing transmission housing noise radiation is proposed to improve powertrain NVH performance. Experiment validation is conducted in order to assess the modified results. The assessment shows that this hybrid approach can effectively predict and reduce powertrain noise and vibration.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structural Acoustic Radiation for Compressor Considering Airflow Pulsed Load

A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Hydraulic Free Piston Diesel Engine

In this paper the experiments of hydraulic free piston diesel engine is described. The experimental data were obtained from measurement instruments on the free piston diesel engine that has been developed by Beijing Institute of Technology [ 1 ]. This article discusses the influences of compression pressure, injection timing, and combustion process to the free piston diesel engine principle. The compression process experiment shows that the piston velocity, the compression ratio can be controlled by adjusting the compression pressure. With the increasing of the compression pressure, there is a growing a compression ratio and piston velocity. The study on injection timing shows that the injection timing impacts the cylinder pressure peak value and the pressure peak arrival time. The combustion process is quite different from the crankshaft engine because of the unique piston movement characteristics of the hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Design and Application of the ECU Application Software Components Library for Diesel Engine

Based on MATLAB/Simulink, the ECU application software components library for diesel engine has been designed in this paper. The hierarchic and modularized components library is an open research platform for the model-based control software development. Using the components technology, the requirements of the diesel engine ECU application software have been analyzed, upon which the detailed components partition and the components library design have been accomplished. Besides, based on this components library, a control prototype for the diesel engine has been established quickly and verified through the Hardware-in-the-Loop test. The ECU software design and test process based on the components library show a good flexibility of the library, and it can improve the configurability and reusability of the software and increase the efficiency of the control software development.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Filtration Model for the Power-shift Steering Transmission

Within the hydraulic shifting circuit of power-shift steering transmission, the performance of filter is generally characterized by the theoretical filtration ratio. However in practical work, the actual filtration ratio is far less than the theoretical ratio. On the basis of investigation on the structural characteristics, the oil flowing distribution and the filter mechanisms, the re-filtering rate ω and recontaminative rate θ are defined to simulate the actual filtering process. Therefore, the dynamic filtration ratio is modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to investigate that how the filtering rate ω and θ influence the dynamic filtration ratio and the deviation between the dynamic ratio and theoretical ratio. Afterwards, the variation of dynamic filtration ratio is tested through a filtration experiment under the circumstances of various flow rate, temperature and pressure.
Technical Paper

Calculations and Test Measurements of In-Cylinder Combustion Velocity of Hydrogen - Air Mixtures Considering the Effect of Flame Instability

The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixtures have significance significant impact on the performance and control of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and the combustion velocity is an important parameter in characterizing the combustion characteristics of the mixture. A four-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine was used to study hydrogen combustion; the combustion characteristics of a hydrogen mixture were experimentally studied in a constant-volume incendiary bomb, and the turbulent premixed combustion characteristics of hydrogen were calculated and analyzed. Turbulent hydrogen combustion comes under the folded laminar flame model. The turbulent combustion velocity in lean hydrogen combustion is related not only to the turbulent velocity and the laminar burning velocity, but also to the additional turbulence term caused by the instability of the flame.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Engines Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel

Turbocharged and intercooled DI engines, fueled with different blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on dynamometers. The properties of the test fuels were tested. The cylinder pressure and fuel injection pressure signals were recorded and combustion analysis was conducted. The engine exhaust emissions were measured. The results of the study indicated that HC, CO, PM and smoke emissions improvement was obtained. But there was an increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission, and a slight drop in power with the blends. The combustion analysis showed that biodiesel had a shorter ignition delay and a lower premixed combustion amount, but had an early start of injection caused by the fuel properties. The relationship between combustion and emissions was discussed.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.