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Technical Paper

Crank System Coupling Simulation between Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body and Hydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-08-05
2007-01-3484
A flexible multi-body system dynamics model of crank system is established based on MSC/ADAMS with the purpose of modeling the crank in internal-combustion engine accurately. The film hydrodynamics model is built up through linking ADAMS and elasticity hydrodynamics subroutines. Coupling analysis between multi-flexible body system dynamics and hydrodynamic lubrication of crank system is processed. Results between the model with the function of film and without the function are compared. Then the journal center loci are given. The effects of different factors such as pressure, temperature, rotating speed and load on the journal center loci are also analyzed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Engines Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2199
Turbocharged and intercooled DI engines, fueled with different blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on dynamometers. The properties of the test fuels were tested. The cylinder pressure and fuel injection pressure signals were recorded and combustion analysis was conducted. The engine exhaust emissions were measured. The results of the study indicated that HC, CO, PM and smoke emissions improvement was obtained. But there was an increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission, and a slight drop in power with the blends. The combustion analysis showed that biodiesel had a shorter ignition delay and a lower premixed combustion amount, but had an early start of injection caused by the fuel properties. The relationship between combustion and emissions was discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Removing PM and NOX Simultaneously from Diesel Exhaust

2008-06-23
2008-01-1793
In order to achieve simultaneous removal of particulate matters (PM) and NOX in diesel exhaust, a new kind of aftertreatment prototype has been developed. The prototype combined effects of static, cyclone, non-thermal plasma and hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction. Experiments have been carried out with standard gases simulating diesel exhaust. Physical and chemical effects that took place in the prototype are as follows: the collection of PM by electrostatic-cyclone system, the oxidative combustion of PM, the selective catalytic reduction of NOX, and the reaction between PM and NOX. The effect of non-thermal plasma makes the density of NO decrease and that of NO2 increase, whereas, the amount of NOX remains the same. Employing catalyst coupled with non-thermal plasma debase the temperature by about 50◻, there the peak value of transform rate appears.
Technical Paper

A Study of Calibration of Electronic-controlled Injector Employed in High Pressure Common Rail System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1742
In order to meet the need of high pressure common rail diesel engine, calibration for injection quantity and basic MAP of electronic-controlled injector are made. Combining with testing data, influencing factors for consistency and identity of injecting fuel in electronic-controlled injector are analyzed, in the condition of small quantity, controlled-pressure undulation quantity and injecting pulse revising are presented to achieve the respective demand. Primary basic map for common rail pressure and injecting fuel are fixed with alterable step method, and calibration of fuel quantity MAP is made on bench test. Finally test of electronic-controlled injector equipped in diesel engine is finished, testing result showed that calibration process and method are reasonable.
Technical Paper

Analysis on the Influence of Key Parameters of Control Valve on the Performance Characteristics of Electromagnetic Injector

2017-10-08
2017-01-2310
The control valve is the most important implementation part of a high pressure common rail system, and its flow characteristics have a great influence on the performance of an injector. In this paper, based on the structure and the working principle of an electromagnetic injector in a high pressure common rail system, a simulation model of the injector is established by AMESim software. Some key parameters of the control valve, including the volume of the control chamber, the diameter of the orifice Z (feeding orifice), the diameter of the orifice A (discharge orifice) and the hole diameter of the fuel diffusion hole are studied by using this model. The results show that these key structural parameters of the control valve have a great influence on the establishment of the control chamber pressure and the action of the needle valve.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Gasoline Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2328
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

2019-04-02
2019-01-0223
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Technical Paper

Influence of Key Section Parameters of Exhaust Port on Flow Capacity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0200
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine exhaust port was established. The reliability of modeling method and the exhaust port model were verified by the steady-flow test, PIV test and pressure field test. Based on the exhaust port model, the influence of the key section parameters such as inlet area S1, throat area S2, and outlet area S3 on the flow capacity of the exhaust port was studied. The results show that, under different pressure difference and exhaust back pressure conditions, the mass flow rate increases first and then converges with the increase of the area ratio of outlet and inlet or the area ratio of throat and inlet. With the increase of the relative pressure difference, the optimal area ratio of outlet and inlet decreases and converges to 1.02, but the optimal area ratio of throat and inlet increases and converges to 1.13.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Effects of Electrically Heated Catalyst on the Low Temperature Performance of Vanadium-Based SCR Catalyst on Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1527
The NOx conversion efficiency of vanadium-based SCR catalyst is lower under low temperature. Utilizing an exhaust analyzer, the effects of electrically heated catalyst on the performance of vanadium-based SCR catalyst under low temperature was studied on the engine test bench. The inlet temperature of SCR catalyst without the electrically heated catalyst were in the range of 150°C∼270°C under various steady engine modes, and the NSR (Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio) was set as 0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0. The results showed that under the space velocity of 20000h−1, with the application of the electrically heated catalyst, the inlet temperature of SCR increased about 19.9°C on average and the NOx conversion efficiency improved about 8.0%. The NOx conversion efficiency increased 1.7%∼8.6% at the temperatures of 150°C∼174°C, and 1.0%∼15.9% at the temperatures of 186°C∼270°C.
Technical Paper

Soot and PAH Formation Characteristics of Methanol-Gasoline Belnds in Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames

2018-04-03
2018-01-0357
Particulate matter emissions are becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being more stringent. Methanol has been considered to be an important alternative fuel to reduce soot emissions. To understand the effect of methanol addition on soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation, the 2-D distributions of soot volume fraction and different size PAHs relative concentrations in methanol/gasoline laminar diffusion flames were measured by TC-LII and PLIF techniques. The effect of methanol was investigated under the conditions of the same carbon flow and the same flame height. The methanol volume fraction was set as M0/20/40/60/80. The results showed that the natural luminescent flame lift-off height and soot lift-off height increases consistently with the increasing methanol content due to the increase of outlet velocity of fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2321
Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ethanol Addition on Soot Formation of Gasoline in Laminar Diffusion Flames

2017-10-08
2017-01-2396
Soot emission, known as PM (particulate matter), is becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being increasingly stricter. It is found that ethanol, as an oxygenated bio-fuel, can reduce the soot emission when added to gasoline. In order to fully understand the effect of ethanol on soot reducing, the soot characteristics of ethanol/gasoline blends were studied on laminar diffusion flames. In this experiment, the blending ratio of ethanol/gasoline was set as E0/20/40/60/80. Considering the carbon content decreasing due to ethanol addition, carbon mass flow rate was remained constant. The two-dimensional distributions of soot volume fraction were measured quantitatively by using two-color laser induced incandescence technique. The results showed that ethanol is able to decrease the soot significantly, but the effect of ethanol on soot reduction is weakened with the increasing ethanol ratio.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Study on Pressure Fluctuation of a Constant Pressure Fuel System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0828
The pressure fluctuation characteristics of a constant pressure fuel system has great influence on its fuel injection characteristics. It is, therefore important to understand the impacts of these fluctuations in order to better study and optimize the fuel injection characteristics. In this study, the pressure fluctuation characteristics of the high pressure common rail system have been investigated experimentally. The transient pressure at different positions in the high pressure common rail system have been measured. The phase of pressure fluctuation during the injection process has been analyzed and the corresponding fluctuating characteristic parameters have been characterized for each phase. The changes in pressure wave propagation velocity, fuel injection pressure drop amplitude, wave amplitude, period and decay time are obtained by studying the fluctuation characteristic parameters caused by fuel pressure and temperature change.
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