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Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1314
In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0094
When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

Design and Production of Mg Wheels in China

2007-04-16
2007-01-1035
The high strength-weight ratio and high damping capability of Magnesium alloys implies significant potentials for improving fuel efficiency and vehicle performance with the use Mg wheels. In this paper, a brief review is given of the current state of art in Mg wheel production, followed by a summary of the mechanical and casting properties of Mg alloys. The difficulties that hinder the wide use of Mg wheels are discussed. The R&D activities in China in the fields of Mg wheel design and casting are described. The focus of this paper is on the design and the development of a new squeeze casting process that makes it feasible to produce high-quality Mg wheels with cost efficiency. Finally, the expected commercial use of Mg wheels in the near future in Chinese motorbikes is outlined.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Engines Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2199
Turbocharged and intercooled DI engines, fueled with different blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on dynamometers. The properties of the test fuels were tested. The cylinder pressure and fuel injection pressure signals were recorded and combustion analysis was conducted. The engine exhaust emissions were measured. The results of the study indicated that HC, CO, PM and smoke emissions improvement was obtained. But there was an increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission, and a slight drop in power with the blends. The combustion analysis showed that biodiesel had a shorter ignition delay and a lower premixed combustion amount, but had an early start of injection caused by the fuel properties. The relationship between combustion and emissions was discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesels in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1638
A modified KIVA code is used to simulate the operation of a small bore HSDI engine with biodiesel from various sources. Genetic modified soybean biodiesel has very similarly combustion characteristics with soybean biodiesel, albeit less NOx. Yellow grease biodiesel burns in a similar manner as regular diesel with less NOx. All types of biodiesel show longer ignition delay but faster combustion, except after TDC injection, where biodiesel exhibits some diffusion combustion. Delaying injection is an effective way to reduce NOx emission. Over 90% of reduction in NOx is observed when fuel injection is delayed from 335° to 363°.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine with Finite Element Method based on Contact Calculation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1583
Contact dynamic characteristics of an internal combustion engine structure were studied by the finite element method and experimental verification. Based on theoretical analysis, contact modal calculation of an internal-combustion engine with finite element method is carried out by the ADINA software. Dynamic behavior of the entire engine structure was investigated. Rigid bar connection and coupling connection were introduced for the purpose of comparison with contact analysis and experiment results. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and FEM results. From the study, it can be demonstrated that dynamic behavior of the engine structure with a large preload shows linear characteristics. Compared with the other models, the procedure presented in this paper is more effective and useful in view of operational time and experience of analysts.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Strategy of Shifting Progress

2008-06-23
2008-01-1684
Based on BF6M1015CP electronic diesel engine (it is a supercharged, water-cooled engine. It has 6 cylinders and it is for heavy-duty vehicle) and HD4070PR electronic automatic transmission (it covers heavy-duty applications requiring high input horsepower and torque. It contains torque converter module, control module, planetary module and output module. It has 7 forward gears and a power-take -off (PTO) and a retarder), the paper analyzes the shift system of an electronic automatic transmission and sets up a mathematic module of the shifting process. With the model the shifting process is analyzed and the model can be used directly in shifting process control, and the rules of shifting process can be derived. To improve the shift quality, in the paper the different control methods in different phases are used and reviewed that Include the open-loop control, fixed ramp rate, and closed-loop control.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

Study on Natural Torsional Vibration Characteristics of Dual Mass - Flywheel Radial Spring Type Torsional Vibration Damper

2009-05-19
2009-01-2062
The working principle of dual mass flywheel - radial spring (DMF-RS) type torsional vibration damper was analyzed, and the design method of natural torsional vibration characteristics control of DMF-RS type torsional damper for automotive powertrains was studied herein. Based on the multi-freedom lumped mass - torsional vibration spring analysis model of powertrain, the natural torsional vibration characteristics of the system with DMF-RS type torsional damper were analyzed, and compared with the clutch type torsional vibration damper, the effectiveness of DMF-RS type torsional damper on the torsional vibration control was verified.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

A Study of Calibration of Electronic-controlled Injector Employed in High Pressure Common Rail System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1742
In order to meet the need of high pressure common rail diesel engine, calibration for injection quantity and basic MAP of electronic-controlled injector are made. Combining with testing data, influencing factors for consistency and identity of injecting fuel in electronic-controlled injector are analyzed, in the condition of small quantity, controlled-pressure undulation quantity and injecting pulse revising are presented to achieve the respective demand. Primary basic map for common rail pressure and injecting fuel are fixed with alterable step method, and calibration of fuel quantity MAP is made on bench test. Finally test of electronic-controlled injector equipped in diesel engine is finished, testing result showed that calibration process and method are reasonable.
Technical Paper

One-dimensional Simulation Study on the Rule of Several-parameter Matching for the Performance of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1696
One-dimensional combustion performance of a turbocharged V-type eight-cylinder diesel engine was computed by used of WAVE code. The parameters of compress ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, fuel injection quantity, advance angle of injection, fuel injection rate and fuel injection duration were changed so as to study quantificationally how these parameters affect the power, fuel consume, the max combustion pressure, exhaust temperature and emission of the diesel engine. The computational results could help to accomplish the preliminary optimization of several parameters for combustion matching and supplement experimental experience and exploit new products.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Gasoline Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2328
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
Technical Paper

A General Selection Method for the Compressor of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine with Turbocharger

2017-03-28
2017-01-1025
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier because it is characterized by a fast combustion velocity, a wide range of sources, and clean combustion products. A hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) with a turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of power density and control NOx. However, the selection of a H2ICE compressor with a turbocharger is very different from traditional engines because of gas fuel. Hydrogen as a gas fuel has the same volume as its cylinder and thus increases pressure and reduces the mass flow rate of air in cylinder for a port fuel injection-H2ICE (PFI-H2ICE). In this study, a general method involving a H2ICE with a turbocharger is proposed by considering the effect of hydrogen on cylinders. Using this method, we can calculate the turbocharged pressure ratio and mass flow rate of air based on the target power and general parameters. This method also provides a series of intake temperatures of air before calculation to improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Coordinated Control for AT Upshift Process

2016-09-27
2016-01-8080
The ever-growing number of interacting electronic vehicle control systems requires new control algorithms to manage the increasing system complexity. As a result, torque-based control architecture has been popular for its easy extension as the torque demand variable is the only interface between the engine control algorithms and other vehicle control systems. Under the torque-based control architecture, the engine and AT coordinated control for upshift process is investigated. Based on the dynamics analysis, quantitative relationship between the turbine torque of HTC and output shaft torque of AT has been obtained. Then the coordinated control strategy has been developed to smooth the torque trajectory of AT output shaft. The designed control strategy is tested on a powertrain simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink and a test bench. Through simulation, the shift time range in which the engine coordinated control strategy is effective is acquired.
Technical Paper

Design Approach and Dimensionless Analysis of a Differential Driving Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

2016-09-27
2016-01-8091
A new method for driving the hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. This method achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. Principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Then energy balance method is used to design the main parameters of the novel engine. High pressure and secondary high pressure of the hydraulic system are constrained by the combustion parameters and therefore parameters are analyzed. In order to verify the effectiveness of energy balance method, the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and engine working principle. The transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. In addition, the effectiveness of the simulation is proofed by dimensionless analysis. It indicates that energy balance method realizes the basic performance of hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

State Estimation Based on Interacting Multiple Mode Kalman Filter for Vehicle Suspension System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1480
The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
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