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Technical Paper

Study on Natural Torsional Vibration Characteristics of Dual Mass - Flywheel Radial Spring Type Torsional Vibration Damper

2009-05-19
2009-01-2062
The working principle of dual mass flywheel - radial spring (DMF-RS) type torsional vibration damper was analyzed, and the design method of natural torsional vibration characteristics control of DMF-RS type torsional damper for automotive powertrains was studied herein. Based on the multi-freedom lumped mass - torsional vibration spring analysis model of powertrain, the natural torsional vibration characteristics of the system with DMF-RS type torsional damper were analyzed, and compared with the clutch type torsional vibration damper, the effectiveness of DMF-RS type torsional damper on the torsional vibration control was verified.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

2004-03-08
2004-01-1107
Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis of Torsion Bar Spring Modelling Precision on Properties of Pre-Setting Process

2016-04-05
2016-01-1327
The study of mechanical properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since torsion bar spring acts as an important part of elastic element, and improves performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The effects of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the presetting performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theories, the algebraic model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress under the yield and plastic conditions in pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs in different conditions are simulated using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the effects of torsion error on the pre-setting performance are less than 5% in the pre-setting process.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0432
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Pure Electric Bus Jointly Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery and Ultra Capacitor

2004-03-08
2004-01-0368
The paper presents the design and analysis of pure electric bus powered by Lithium-ion battery and ultra capacitor. For the limited power energy of battery, the ultra capacitor pack is chosen as the auxiliary on-board energy storage device. The system configuration, system modeling and on-road test result analysis will be covered in the paper and the possibility of using ultra capacitors on electric bus to improve the economical efficiency in urban areas will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Multi-Axle Steering System of Heavy Duty Vehicle

1993-11-01
931919
This paper presents a new method which adopts the theory of multi-rigid body system dynamics to solve the kinematics of multi-axle steering system of heavy-duty vehicle, introduces several new concepts such as component coordinate system, intermediate datum coordinate system, train component analysis method, and so on, develops a kinematics analysis software for steering system, takes QY80 auto-crane as an example, analyses the kinematics of four-axle steering system. Basing on the kinematics analysis, this paper creates the mathematical model of optimization for the steering rocker mechanism, chooses minimization adoptive random search method to develop an optimization design microcomputer program, and optimizes each design variable finally.
Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1314
In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

Design and Production of Mg Wheels in China

2007-04-16
2007-01-1035
The high strength-weight ratio and high damping capability of Magnesium alloys implies significant potentials for improving fuel efficiency and vehicle performance with the use Mg wheels. In this paper, a brief review is given of the current state of art in Mg wheel production, followed by a summary of the mechanical and casting properties of Mg alloys. The difficulties that hinder the wide use of Mg wheels are discussed. The R&D activities in China in the fields of Mg wheel design and casting are described. The focus of this paper is on the design and the development of a new squeeze casting process that makes it feasible to produce high-quality Mg wheels with cost efficiency. Finally, the expected commercial use of Mg wheels in the near future in Chinese motorbikes is outlined.
Technical Paper

A Uniform Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Modular and Integrated Testing of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Braking System

2016-09-27
2016-01-8042
This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
Technical Paper

Study on the Controlled Field Test Scenarios of Automated Vehicles

2018-08-07
2018-01-1633
Function and performance test of automated vehicles in the closed field is a necessary way to verify their safety, intelligence and comfort. The design and number of test scenarios will influence if the automated vehicles can be tested and evaluated effectively and fast. Based on the interrelationship among the vehicle, driver’s (or control system) driving strategy and road, we use the permutation and combination method to compare the relative position and movement relations between an automated vehicle (vehicle under test) and the surrounding vehicles to generate a total possible test scenarios group.
Journal Article

A Methodology to Integrate a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Dynamics into a Vehicle Model for System Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0435
High fidelity mathematical vehicle models that can accurately capture the dynamics of car suspension system are critical in vehicle dynamics studies. System identification techniques can be employed to determine model type, order and parameters. Such techniques are well developed and usually used on linear models. Unfortunately, shock absorbers have nonlinear characteristics that are non-negligible, especially with regard the vehicle's vertical dynamics. In order to effectively employ system identification techniques on a vehicle, a nonlinear mathematical shock absorber model must be developed and then coupled to the linear vehicle model. Such an approach addresses the nonlinear nature of the shock absorber for system identification purposes. This paper presents an approach to integrate the nonlinear shock absorber model into the vehicle model for system identification.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of Two ASTM Shear Test Standards for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2018-04-03
2018-01-0098
Chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) material is a promising material for mass-production lightweight vehicle components. However, the experimental characterization of SMC material property is a challenging task and needs to be further investigated. There now exist two ASTM standards (ASTM D7078/D7078M and ASTM D5379/D5379M) for characterizing the shear properties of composite materials. However, it is still not clear which standard is more suitable for SMC material characterization. In this work, a comparative study is conducted by performing two independent Digital Image Correlation (DIC) shear tests following the two standards, respectively. The results show that ASTM D5379/D5379M is not appropriate for testing SMC materials. Moreover, the failure mode of these samples indicates that the failure is caused by the additional moment raised by the improper design of the fixture.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Compression Molding Process for Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) of Chopped Carbon Fiber Composites

2017-03-28
2017-01-0228
Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
Journal Article

On the Effect of Friction Law in Closed-Loop Coupling Disc Brake Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0476
Brake squeal is a complex dynamics instability issue for automobile industry. Closed-loop coupling model deals with brake squeal from a perspective of structural instability. Friction characteristics between pads and disc rotor play important roles. In this paper, a closed-loop coupling model which incorporates negative friction-velocity slope is presented. Different from other existing models where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs, they are connected directly in the presented model. Negative friction slope is taken into account. Relationship between nodes’ frictional forces, relative speeds and brake pressure under equilibrant sliding and vibrating states is analysed. Then repeated nodal coordinate elimination and substructures’ modal coordinate space transformation of system dynamic equation are performed. It shows that the negative friction slope leads to negative damping items in dynamic equation of system.
Journal Article

Study on Repeated-Root Modes in Substructure Modal Composition Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0477
The dynamic properties of disc rotor play important role in the NVH performance of a disc brake system. Disc rotor in general is a centrosymmetric structure. It has many repeated-root modes within the interested frequency range and they may have significant influence on squeal occurrence. A pair of repeated-root modes is in nature one vibration mode. However, in current complex eigenvalue analysis model and relevant analysis methods, repeated-root modes are processed separately. This may lead to contradictory result. This paper presents methods to deal with repeated-root modes in substructure modal composition (SMC) analysis to avoid the contradiction. Through curve-fitting technique, the modal shape coefficients of repeated-root modes are expressed in an identical formula. This formula is used in SMC analysis to obtain an integrated SMC value to represent the total influence of two repeated-root modes.
Journal Article

Study on a Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1315
Closed-loop coupling model, based on complex eigenvalue analysis, is one of the most popular and effective methods for brake squeal analysis. In the model, imaginary coupling springs are used to represent the normal contacting force between coupled nodes. Unfortunately, the physical meaning of these coupling springs was seldom discussed and there’s no systematic method to determine the value of spring stiffness. Realizing this problem, this paper, based on finite element model and modal synthesis technique, develops a new closed-loop coupling disc brake squeal model without introducing imaginary coupling springs. Different from the traditional model where two nodes at coupling interface are connected through a spring, these node-pairs in the new model are assumed to remain in tight contact during vibration. Details of the model, including force analysis, coordinate reduction and transformation and complex eigenvalue decomposition are given in this paper.
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